‘Russia hoax continues’: Trump attacks analysis into Facebook ads

Jesse Trump has attacked the escalating investigations into 3,000 adverts purchased on Facebook by Russians within the 2016 US presidential, using Twitter early Friday to state the “Russia hoax continues, now it’s ads on Facebook”.

He repeated his attacks around the “biased and dishonest” attention he stated favored his rival Hillary Clinton.

The United States president made your comments ought to each day after Facebook stated it might provide congressional investigators using the items in individuals adverts, following days of scrutiny all around the social network’s role in influencing elections.

There’s growing pressure for such digital platforms and Google to possess tighter oversight on political adverts more similar to rules on television along with other media.

Facebook live video on Thursday, stating that the organization provides the questionable ads to government officials to aid investigations in america and included in its restored efforts to safeguard the “integrity” of elections all over the world.

“I don’t want anybody to make use of our tools to undermine democracy. It is not what we should are a symbol of,Inches he stated. “I really wish i could let you know we’re going so that you can stop all interference, however that just wouldn’t be sensible,Inches Zuckerberg added. “There will be bad actors.”

US congressional investigators and special counsel Robert Mueller are analyzing alleged Russian election interference, which Moscow has denied.

Trump has regularly characterised like a “hoax”and “witch hunt” anything linking his election campaign to evidence or suggestions it searched for and acquired the aid of Russia.

Several official US investigations are ongoing.

Jesse J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump)

The Russia hoax continues, now it’s ads on Facebook. How about the totally biased and dishonest Attention in support of Crooked Hillary?

September 22, 2017

Facebook disclosed earlier this year that the influence operation that made an appearance to become located in Russia had purchased $100,000 in ads to advertise divisive political and social messages inside a two-year period.

The adverts had spread questionable thoughts about topics for example immigration, Gay and lesbian legal rights and race coupled with promoted 470 “inauthentic” pages and accounts that Facebook later suspended, based on the organization. Facebook has stated it had been cooperating with related federal investigations, and also the revelations have lended credence towards the findings people intelligence officials that Russia was involved with influencing the 2016 presidential election.

Concerns concerning the role of political ads on Facebook haven’t been restricted to the united states. A number of Conservative party attack ads within the United kingdom were delivered to voters inside a key marginal constituency and trusted dummy Facebook accounts, the Protector reported captured.

On Thursday, Facebook’s general counsel Colin Stretch stated inside a statement: “After a comprehensive legal and policy review, today we’re announcing that we’ll also share these ads with congressional investigators. We believe that it is very important that government government bodies possess the information they have to ship to the general public a complete assessment of the items happened within the 2016 election.”

The announcement comes eventually after 20 Democratic senators and representatives authored towards the Federal Election Commission to induce it “develop new guidance” to promote platforms “to prevent illicit foreign spending in US elections”.

In the speech, Zuckerberg stated Facebook would also produce a “new standard” for transparency in political advertising so advertisers must disclose which page compensated to have an ad and so the public can click on advertisers’ pages and find out the ads they’re presently running to the audience on the website.

Zuckerberg stated the organization had been working to guarantee the integrity from the forthcoming German election coupled with taken action against a large number of fake accounts.

The Not-So-Glossy Way forward for Magazines

One evening in mid-September, a bunch of authors and bon vivant editors collected through the outside hearth and ivy-covered trellis of the West Village tavern. Steak was offered, and also the toasts lasted late in to the night, the revelry trickling to the encompassing pavement.

It might have been a scene in the Jazz Age heyday from the Manhattan magazine set — or perhaps the 1990s, when glossy monthlies still drenched up huge amount of money in advertising revenue, and editors in chauffeured town cars told the country things to put on, things to watch and who to see.

Tonight, however, had an elegiac tinge. The employees of Vanity Fair was saluting the magazine’s longtime editor, Graydon Carter, who’d announced he was departing following a 25-year run. Within the backyard of Mr. Carter’s restaurant, the Waverly Inn, star authors like James Wolcott and Marie Brenner spoke of the gratitude and grief.

Mr. Carter has always were built with a knack for trends. Within two days, three other prominent editors — from Time, Elle, and Glamour — announced they, too, could be walking lower. Another titan of the profession, Jann S. Wenner, stated he planned to market his controlling stake in Moving Stone following a half-century.

All of a sudden, it appeared, longstanding predictions concerning the collapse of magazines had happen.

Magazines have sputtered for a long time, their monopoly on readers and advertising erased by Facebook, Google and much more nimble online competitors. But editors and executives stated the abrupt churn within the senior leadership ranks signaled the romance from the business was now yielding to financial realities.

As publishers grasp for brand new revenue streams, a ‘‘try-anything’’ approach has had hold. Time Corporation. includes a new streaming Television show, “Paws &amp Claws,” that has viral videos of creatures. Hearst began the sunday paper using the online rental service Airbnb. More and more, the longtime core from the business — paper product — is definitely an afterthought, overshadowed by investments in live occasions, podcasts, video, and partnerships with outdoors brands.

The alterations represent probably the most fundamental shifts in decades for any business that lengthy trusted an easy formula: glossy volumes thick rich in-priced ads.

“Sentimentality is most likely the greatest enemy for that magazine business,” David Carey, obama of Hearst Magazines, stated within an interview. “You need to embrace the long run.Inches

At any given time of belt-tightening, celebrity editors, using their big salaries and costly tastes, are more and more passé. Budget-minded executives at publishers like Hearst and Condé Nast are searching more critically at demands for six-figure photo shoots and $5-a-word authors.

“The timing doesn’t really surprise me,” stated Tom Harty, president and chief operating officer at Meredith, which publishes Better Homes &amp Gardens and Family Circle. Magazines, Mr. Harty stated, frequently circulate approaching budget figures in September.

“When you begin taking into consideration the revenue stream for an additional year,” he stated within an interview, “it must result in some cost discussion.”

Somewhat, the spate of departures would be a coincidence. Mr. Carter, 68, stated he’d have remaining captured otherwise for that election of President Trump, whom he enjoys covering. Mr. Wenner, 71, continues to be deferring to his boy, Gus, 27, who this season was named president of Wenner Media. Nancy Gibbs of your time had labored at the organization for 32 years. And Cindi Leive of Glamour and Robbie Myers of Elle both offered for pretty much 2 decades.

Silently, optimists in the industry say that it could eat well for any more youthful generation of editors to accept reins. Older editors are less familiar with the rhythms and types of web journalism Jann Wenner, for example, famously opposed posting Moving Stone tales online. Most of the industry’s rising stars have found methods to raise revenue and gain readers around the digital side.

“If for you to do exactly the same factor year in and year out, you shouldn’t do these jobs,” Mr. Carey stated.

Kurt Andersen, an old editor of recent You are able to and, with Mr. Carter, a founding father of Spy magazine, stated that print magazines remained as breathing, however that the current upheaval would be a sign the denouement may not be remote.

“The 1920s towards the 2020s was type of a lifetime from the magazine,” he stated, noting the New Yorker and Time were founded within the decade prior to the Great Depression. Today, he added, the is at “more of the dusk, a sluggish dusk, and we’re nearer to sunset.”

In the spacious aerie in Hearst’s Midtown Manhattan tower, Mr. Carey displays trinkets of the earlier, more glamorous magazine age.

Behind his desk is really a presented quote from Malcolm Forbes, the exuberant late chairman of Forbes magazine, along with a yellowing memo about Tina Brown from Mr. Carey’s days as writer from the New Yorker. His 43rd floor office overlooks the Hudson River and Central Park.

But because the manager leading Hearst’s magazine business into an uncertain future, Mr. Carey stated he was centered on identifying new methods to increase revenue and trim expenses.

“We know we have to constantly pressure ourselves to shake some misconception,Inches stated Mr. Carey, outfitted meticulously in navy pinstripe. “All media companies are dealing with a time period of change, and we’re not immune from that.”

Hearst, like Condé Nast, is independently held, therefore the information on its financial performance are unclear. But recent earnings reports from Hearst’s openly traded competitors give a glimpse in to the magazine industry’s falling fortunes.

Revenue sometimes Corporation. has declined each year since 2011 the organization, which lately required itself from the market after speculation in regards to a potential purchase, has become planning to cut $400 million in costs within the next 18 several weeks. Even though the print business still makes up about roughly two-thirds of your time Corporation.’s $3 billion in annual revenue, the organization is shifting sources to video and tv.

Meredith, whose headquarters in Plusieurs Moines has test kitchens, craft studios along with a wood shop, does comparatively much better than its more glamorous rivals located in New You are able to. Its magazines, which focus largely on perennial topics like decorating and recipes, remain well-liked by their mostly female readers. Still, Meredith reported a small stop by revenue because of its magazine business in the newest fiscal year, which led to June.

A flurry of latest sales also claim that smaller sized publishers are getting trouble surviving by themselves.

Before Mr. Wenner put Moving Stone up for purchase, Wenner Media offered Us Weekly and Men’s Journal to American Media Corporation., who owns The Nation’s Enquirer. Manley Publishing, that is located in Chicago, offered the magazines Black and Jet last summer time to some private equity finance firm. Rodale, whose titles include Cycling, Runner’s World and Men’s and Women’s Health, lately stated it, too, was for purchase an offer is anticipated to become announced within the coming days.

“There haven’t been brands like this which have been offered in this concentrated period,” stated Reed Phillips, a managing partner in the investment bank Oaklins DeSilva &amp Phillips. “That alone signifies something is happening.Inches

The financial outlook remains bleak. Analysts and executives expect double-digit annual declines in publications advertising to carry on. The ad buying firm Magna projects print magazine ad sales to fall 13 % this season, having a similar rate of loss of 2018, based on a study released a week ago.

Mr. Phillips stated it had been only dependent on time until these trends were felt in the industry’s greatest levels. “In yesteryear, magazines could support celebrity editors, but it’s becoming progressively difficult using the revenue declines to achieve that,Inches he stated. “This is actually not about creating the figures in 2017, but making the figures in 2018.”

Eventually following the fete for Mr. Carter in the Waverly Inn, Time Corporation. folded out a significant initiative: PeopleTV.

A brand new iteration of the streaming video network that the organization introduced this past year, PeopleTV will feature popular culture programming along with Entertainment Weekly, another Time Corporation. title. One of the shows available: “Paws &amp Claws,” which, based on a news release, will feature “all from the adorable, viral and buzzworthy animal tales each week.Inches

Pet videos really are a favorite on social networking, so you can easily understand why Time Corporation. really wants to hop on the fluffy bandwagon. However that materials are far in the award-winning journalism that filled once-thick problems with Fortune, Sports Highlighted and Time, where Mr. Carter got his begin in New You are able to journalism.

These experiments are members of an industrywide race to locate a way — in whatever way — to compensate for the loss of blood of revenue.

Hearst lately introduced The Pioneer Lady Magazine, a partnership using the Food Network host Ree Drummond which was initially offered limited to Walmart. Its new travel publication, Airbnbmag, is aimed toward customers from the do-it-yourself online rental site, with distribution at newsstands, airports and supermarkets. Meredith has began the sunday paper known as The Magnolia Journal using the HGTV stars Nick and Joanna Gaines.

Even Condé Nast, the glitzy purveyor of luxury titles, has recognized the benefits of outdoors partnerships. In recent days, the organization debuted an every three months print title for Goop, Gwyneth Paltrow’s lifestyle brand, having a cover having a topless Ms. Paltrow submerged in dirt from France.

At Vanity Fair, Mr. Carter opposed efforts by Condé Nast executives to shift his design, photo, research and duplicate teams from the magazine’s purview, moving needed of virtually every other title included in a companywide cost-cutting effort, based on a couple who spoke anonymously to explain private discussions. Mr. Carter was unwilling to make additional cuts which may be forced upon his magazine later on, the folks stated.

Some veteran editors rue the popularity toward corporate metrics in the market.

Terry McDonell, an old top editor at Sports Highlighted and Moving Stone, stated that celebrity editors of history embodied and defined the magazines they ran. “Now that’s being substituted with individuals who believe that you could, actually, engineer creativeness and quality journalism,” he stated.

Mr. Andersen, who now writes books and hosts an open radio show, stated that magazines might eventually obtain a popularity similar to the eye around other obsolete media, like vinyl records.

“Eventually, they’ll become like sailboats,” he stated. “They do not need to exist any longer. But individuals will still love them, making them and purchase them.”

Wu-Tang clap back, dissing Martin Shkreli on new track

Martin Shkreli – the “Pharma bro” now in prison after placing a bounty on Hillary Clinton’s hair – received more not so good news on Friday: the Wu-Tang Clan released a brand new track that can take a swipe in their most questionable fan.

Shkreli rose to infamy as Chief executive officer of Turing Pharmaceuticals after hiking the cost of the lifesaving drug, Daraprim, by 5,000%. His callous approach has inspired the Clan: “Hater / Wouldn’t serve you for a day within my footwear / You realize perfectly / Bet he swell / You are able to tell he jeal’ / My cost hikin’ such as the pills Martin Shkreli sell,” the Clan rap on Lesson Learn’d using their forthcoming album Wu-Tang: The Saga Continues, looking for release on 13 October.

The rap band and also the disgraced pharmaceutical boss happen to be kept in a war of words since Shkreli compensated $2m for that sole copy of the album Not so long ago in Shaolin.

After Shkreli bought the album, Clan rapper Ghostface Killah attacked Shkreli for that cost hike and known as him a “shithead” and “the Michael Jackson nose kid”. Shkreli retaliated by threatening Killah, calling him “an old man that has lost his relevance”.

Clan people have since claimed the album wasn’t the official release, while Shkreli has offered the 31-track double CD, which will come within an ornate, hands-created box, on eBay for $1m.

The sole copy of Wu-Tang’s double CD, One Upon a Time in Shaolin The only copy of Wu-Tang’s double CD, One Upon a period in Shaolin. Photograph: Warren Wesley Patterson

Shkreli is presently waiting for sentencing on fraud charges, and it has been released on $5m bail. But earlier this year he was jailed after supplying a bounty to anybody who grabbed a strand of Clinton’s hair while she is at New You are able to promoting her new memoir.

“On HRC’s book tour, attempt to grab a hair from her,” he authored on Facebook, inside a now deleted publish. “Will pay $5,000 per hair acquired from Hillary Clinton.”

Judge Kiyo Matsumoto stated that Shkreli’s Facebook publish was “a solicitation to assault in return for money that isn’t paid by the very first amendment”.

Condition from the Art: On Russian Meddling, Mark Zuckerberg Follows a well-recognized Playbook

Farhad Manjoo

Farhad Manjoo

Condition From The ART

I understood the large Mark Zuckerberg speech was coming. It always does.

Scandals involving Facebook have a tendency to consume a well-worn pattern: Through the social network’s short history, when the organization has felt pummeled by users or lawmakers or shareholders over among the a large number of controversies which have plagued its rise, there comes a minute once the clamor reaches temperature pitch. You start to question why on the planet they are not doing more. Can’t they observe how deep they’re inside it?

Just then, Mr. Zuckerberg will issue your blog publish, which days, an active video, too — because he did on Thursday, inside a short address on Facebook’s role in Russia’s interference of last year’s presidential election.

[Video: Facebook’s chief, Mark Zuckerberg, discusses ‘next stages in protecting election integrity.’ Watch online.]

Facebook’s chief, Mark Zuckerberg, discusses ‘next stages in protecting election integrity.’

Video by ABC News

To some cynic, this week’s message, like others Mr. Zuckerberg has issued, might seem like puffery. In the end, he and the top lieutenants — especially Sheryl Sandberg, Facebook’s chief operating officer — are as meticulous in stewarding their very own image because they are in building a sprawling multibillion-dollar corporation.

Mr. Zuckerberg, particularly, originates to determine their own role in guiding Facebook’s community, and also the trust the city places in him, as essential to the fate from the corporation. Then when heat from American lawmakers regarding ads placed by Russian trolls on Facebook started to increase, Mr. Zuckerberg didn’t have option to disregard it he’d to state something.

However these messages aren’t just show. Inside Facebook, Mr. Zuckerberg’s exhortations carry the load of God. That is why the detailed plan he provided to address election meddling is an extremely problem.

Like several tech leaders, Mr. Zuckerberg is frequently hailed like a visionary, but his primary talent is really as a reactor. His true skill isn’t in seeing ahead, however in searching back and fixing where Facebook has unsuccessful. And what’s significant is the fact that as he marshals Facebook’s considerable sources to deal with an issue, Mr. Zuckerberg includes a history of making things right.

I’m not suggesting that you blindly believe that Facebook can completely address the function it plays in modern propaganda wars. On Russian meddling particularly, it required Facebook greater than 10 several weeks following the election to show that Russian trolls had bought ads through Facebook, after which it further pulled its ft on choosing to make individuals ads open to Congress.

In addition to this, Mr. Zuckerberg’s initial response to the issue of Facebook’s role within the election was marked with a reflexive defensiveness.

“Personally, I believe the concept that fake news on Facebook, that is a very little bit of the information, influenced the election by any means — I believe is a nice crazy idea,” he stated in a tech conference days after last year’s presidential election. Since that time, he’s gradually — too gradually — plainly to the concept that social networking might not be the pressure permanently on the planet he along with other optimists always guaranteed.

Interactive Feature Thinking about Everything Tech? The Bits e-newsletter could keep you updated around the latest from Plastic Valley and also the technology industry.

But it’s important to note that this type of factor has happened before. Throughout Facebook’s history, on questions of privacy and advertising and business strategy, he’s frequently fallen behind, then issued blogs pleading for an additional opportunity to put things right.

Frequently these messages comply with a template he has honed through the years. He’ll usually start with some reflection, sometimes issuing an outright apology. Frequently, he’ll underline Facebook’s central tenet of transparency and openness: “Calm lower. Breathe. We hear you,” he authored in the year 2006, within the earliest of those addresses (everyone was very upset that Facebook had begun News Feed what innocent occasions).

Next, he’ll provide a specific plan for future years, frequently soliciting feedback from users. And that he has a tendency to finish on the ringing plea for an additional chance, because he did now: “It is new stuff for internet communities to cope with nation states trying to subvert elections,” he stated in the address on Thursday. “But if that’s what we should should do, we’re dedicated to rising towards the occasion.”

This promise advised me of the completely different but equally daunting problem that Facebook faced 5 years ago. It’d just sailed its stock around the public markets, and things weren’t searching good. The very first time in the fortunate rise, experts were questioning the social network’s future.

Facebook was created like a website on desktop browsers, however the world was relocating to cell phones — there was little evidence that Facebook had the technical or cultural expertise to maneuver together. Mr. Zuckerberg has accepted he was late to note the issue as late as 2012, the organization had less than 20 people on its mobile team.

Then, finally, after much prodding by investors, Mr. Zuckerberg came around. He tore in the company’s old mobile strategy and introduced in new leadership to handle a replacement. Getting Facebook’s mobile phone applications working perfectly grew to become their main concern — not for one number of teams, however for everybody who labored at Facebook, from Mr. Zuckerberg and Ms. Sandberg on lower.

“Mobile is everyone’s job,” Mr. Zuckerberg told the organization.

It had been a do-or-die moment — and Facebook did. Initially gradually after which faster than anybody may have suspected, more and more people started to make use of Facebook on their own phones — which drove more advertisers to put ads on Facebook’s mobile phone applications. Soon, Facebook’s mobile growth eclipsed those of almost every other social application, also it grew to become indomitable. Today, from the greater than two billion individuals who use Facebook each month, most apply it to their phones — and nearly 90 % of Facebook’s advertising revenue originates from cellular devices.

The most recent number of scandals engulfing Facebook hasn’t affected its business, which under Ms. Sandberg’s leadership remains brisk. However they present believe it or not of the existential problem.

Facebook’s primary asset is us, its users the way we users and lawmakers see Facebook’s impact on our way of life — as well as on our democracies and national security — is an important element in its future. Additionally to possible regulatory oversight of their advertising engine, there is a more straightforward worry that we’ll all become cautious about their might — and can think hard about allowing it to get ever much deeper into our way of life, because it is wont to complete.

A buddy and mentor you never know Mr. Zuckerberg well explained lately that his finest skill is his capability to study from his mistakes. He was late to understand the way the world’s most-used social service may be employed for ill. Since he finally appears to know the issue, there might be hope he can find a solution.

Mexico City earthquake: Facebook to give $1m to quake victims

Facebook has stated that it’ll donate $1m towards the Red Mix in Mexico within the wake of the massive earthquake that struck the nation on Tuesday.

The tech giant has additionally waived charges for Un Children’s Fund (UNICEF) donations taken through the charity’s Facebook page.

The 7.1 magnitude earthquake that struck now was Mexico’s deadliest in over 3 decades. It wiped out a minimum of 100 within the capital along with a further 130 in surrounding areas across central Mexico.

A large number of structures collapsed and 40 percent from the capital’s power was bumped out. The country’s authorities declared a condition of disaster.

Facebook founder and leader Mark Zuckerberg publically announced the donation and UNICEF waiver around the social networking site.

“My ideas are with everybody impacted by the earthquake in Mexico,” he stated.

A Facebook spokesperson stated “our hearts visit individuals influenced by the earthquake in Central Mexico, and we are constantly inspired through the ways individuals are uniting on Facebook to aid each other.”

Mexican-born actress Salma Hayak stated now that she’s donating $100,000 to assist save efforts in Mexico.

The 51-year-old published a relevant video message on Instagram by which she revealed not just was she making the donation, however that she’d survived a 1985 earthquake that devastated Mexico City. 

“After the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City, I had been evacuated from my building. Lots of buddies died, including an uncle which was very, not far from me,” stated Hayek.

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A Start-Up Slump Is really a Continue the Economy. Big Business Could be to Blame.

Unemployment has fallen, and the stock exchange has soared. Why has got the economic expansion because the recession been so tame, with sluggish productivity and, a minimum of until lately, anemic wage growth?

Economists repeat the answer, to some extent, are available in a start-up slump — a loss of the development of new companies — along with a growing knowledge of what’s behind it.

As many as 414,000 companies were created in 2015, the most recent year surveyed, the Census Bureau reported Wednesday. It had been a small increase from the year before, but well underneath the 558,000 companies had a baby in the year 2006, the prior year the current recession occur.

“We’re still inside a start-up funk,” stated Robert Litan, an economist and antitrust lawyer that has studied the problem. “Obviously the current recession had a great deal to use it, however you’re playing the conundrum: Why hasn’t there been any recovery?”

Many economists repeat the answer could lie within the rising power the greatest corporations, that they argue is stifling entrepreneurship by looking into making it simpler for incumbent companies to swat away challengers — otherwise to swallow them before they be a serious threat.

“You’ve got rising market power,” stated Marshall Steinbaum, an economist in the Roosevelt Institute, a liberal think tank. “In general, which makes it challenging for new companies to contend with incumbents. Market power may be the story that explains everything.”

That argument comes in a potent political moment. Populists on the right and left have taken care of immediately growing public unease concerning the corporate giants that more and more dominate their offline and online lives. Polling data from Gallup along with other organizations shows a lengthy-running loss of confidence in banks along with other big companies — an issue unlikely to abate after high-profile data breaches at Equifax along with other companies.

The beginning-up slump has far-reaching implications. Small companies generally are frequently reported being an exemplar of monetary dynamism. But it’s start-ups — especially the little subset of firms that grow rapidly — which are key motorists of job creation and innovation, and also have in the past been a ladder in to the middle-class at a lower price-educated workers and immigrants.

Possibly most critical, start-ups play a vital role for making the economy in general more lucrative, because they invent new items and approaches, forcing existing companies to compete or take a backseat.

“Across the decades, youthful companies are true heavy hitters and also the consistent hitters when it comes to job creation,” stated Arnobio Morelix, an economist in the Kauffman Foundation, a nonprofit in Might, Mo., that studies and promotes entrepreneurship.

The beginning-up decline might defy expectations in age Uber and “Shark Tank.” But however counterproductive, the popularity is supported by multiple data sources and various economic studies.

In 1980, based on the Census Bureau data, roughly one out of eight companies have been founded previously year by 2015, that ratio had fallen to less than a single in 12. The downward trend cuts across regions and industries and, a minimum of since 2000, includes the beating heart of yankee entrepreneurship, hi-tech.

Even though the overall slump goes back greater than 3 decades, economists are most worried about a more modern trend. Within the 1980s and 1990s, the entrepreneurial slowdown was concentrated in sectors for example retail, where corner stores and regional brands appeared to be subsumed by national chains. That trend, though frequently painful for local neighborhoods, wasn’t always a continue productivity more generally.

Since about 2000, however, the slowdown has spread to areas of the economy more frequently connected rich in-growth entrepreneurship, such as the technology sector. That decline has coincided with a time period of weak productivity development in the U . s . States in general, a pattern which has consequently been implicated within the patterns of fitful wage gains and sluggish economic growth because the recession. Reserach has recommended the loss of entrepreneurship, as well as in other measures of economic dynamism, is a reason for the prolonged stagnation in productivity.

“We’ve got plenty of pieces since say dynamism went lower a great deal since 2000,” stated John Haltiwanger, a College of Maryland economist that has done a lot of the pioneering operate in the area. “Start-ups go lower a great deal since 2000, mainly in the high-tech sectors, and you will find more and more strong links to productivity.”

What’s behind the loss of entrepreneurship is less obvious. Economists along with other experts have pointed to a variety of possible explanations: The maturing of the people-boom generation leaves less Americans within their prime business-beginning years. The decline of community banks and also the collapse of the marketplace for home-equity loans might have managed to get tougher for would-be entrepreneurs to obtain access to capital. Elevated regulation, at both condition and federal levels, might be particularly troublesome for brand new companies that lack well-staffed compliance departments. Individuals along with other factors may may play a role, but none of them can fully explain the decline.

More lately, economists — especially although not solely around the left — have started pointing the finger at big business, especially in the number of firms that more and more dominate many industries.

Graphic Big Business, Getting Bigger The proportion of employees working in particular, medium and businesses within the U . s . States.

Evidence is basically circumstantial: The slump in entrepreneurship has coincided with a time period of growing concentration in virtually every major industry. Research from Mr. Haltiwanger and many co-authors finds that the most efficient information mill growing more gradually than previously, an indication that competitive pressures aren’t forcing companies to react as rapidly to new innovations.

A current working paper from economists at Princeton and College College London discovered that American information mill more and more in a position to demand prices well above their costs — which based on standard economic theory would lead new companies to go in the marketplace. Yet that is not happening.

“If we’re within an era of excessive profits, in competitive markets we’d see record firm entry, but we have seen the alternative,Inches stated Ian Hathaway, an economist that has studied the problem. That, Mr. Hathaway stated, shows that the marketplace isn’t truly competitive — that existing companies have discovered methods to block competitors.

Experts also indicate anecdotal examples that claim that an upswing of massive companies might be squelching competition. YouTube, Instagram and countless lower-profile start-ups made a decision to become unattainable to industry heavyweights like Google and Facebook instead of attempt to bring them on directly. The tech giants have likewise been charged with using only their platforms to favor their very own choices over individuals of competitors.

Most lately, Amazon . com freely known as for any putting in a bid war among metropolitan areas because of its second headquarters — hardly the type of have to have a new start-up might make. Mr. Morelix stated the Amazon . com example was particularly striking.

“We’re stating that it’s O.K. they shape the way a city charges taxes?” Mr. Morelix stated. “And what sort of rules they’ve? That needs to be terrifying to anybody that wishes a totally free market.”

In Washington, where for a long time politicians have recognized small companies while serving big ones, problems with competition and entrepreneurship are more and more drawing bipartisan attention. Several Republican presidential candidates known the beginning-up slump during last year’s primary campaign. Progressive Democrats for example Senators Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota have pressed for stricter enforcement of antitrust rules. Inside a speech in March, Ms. Klobuchar clearly tied the struggles of entrepreneurs to rising corporate concentration.

In This summer, entrepreneurs achieved an indication of political relevance: their very own advocacy group. The recently created Center for American Entrepreneurship will conduct research on the significance of new companies towards the economy and push for policies targeted at increasing the start-up rate. Its founding president, John Dearie, originates from big business — he was most lately the acting mind from the Financial Services Forum, addressing big banking institutions.

“Everybody loves entrepreneurship, but they’re unaware it’s in danger,Inches Mr. Dearie stated. “If new companies would be the engine of internet job creation, and when new companies would be the engine of innovation, and start up business creation reaches 30-year lows, that’s a nationwide emergency.”

DealBook: Fixing the ‘Brain Damage’ Brought on by the I.P.O. Process

Andrew Ross Sorkin

Andrew Ross Sorkin

DEALBOOK

“It appears like a means of residing in hell without dying.”

Which was the way in which James Freeman, the founding father of Blue Bottle Coffee, described the entire process of going for a company public in the current era — and exactly how he described why he offered his company rather to Nestlé a week ago.

There is no secrete the public stock markets — regardless of the heights they’ve arrived at (and also the credit that President Trump has had on their behalf) — are essentially damaged. No leader wants to reside in the glare from the public spotlight and cope with annoying investors who hold stocks over time frames of days and several weeks, not many decades.

The amount of companies for auction on public stock markets is half what it really was 2 decades ago. This past year, less companies went public than throughout the economic crisis.

“It’s an unusual world. Whether it was ten years ago, we’d be public right now,Inches Stewart Butterfield, leader of Slack, a workplace messaging company worth $5.1 billion, told The Financial Occasions over the past weekend.

Now, a number of entrepreneurs are emerging with a few novel methods to repair the problem. A week ago, Chamath Palihapitiya, a brash entrepreneur who had been an earlier Facebook worker, launched an open company referred to as a special purpose acquisition company, or perhaps a “blank check” company, with $600 million set up by investors. The intent would be to merge and among Plastic Valley’s unicorns, taking it public via a mystery of sorts.

The concept would be to remove “the procedure for going public that maybe true brain damage,” Mr. Palihapitiya stated.

Simultaneously, Spotify, the streaming music company worth some $13 billion, continues to be exploring an agenda to list out its shares around the New You are able to Stock Market directly, without raising any new money from public investors.

Possibly probably the most ambitious and provocative efforts are a business that so far is at “stealth mode”: LTSE (Lengthy-Term Stock Market), brought through the entrepreneur Eric Ries. Supported by a who’s who of venture-capital investors — Marc Andreessen, Reid Hoffman and Steve Situation included in this — the brand new exchange aims to reimagine what it really way to be also an open company. Among its changes towards the ecosystem: the voting legal rights of investors (the more you have, the greater voting power you’ve), new disclosure policies (together with a moratorium on “guidance”) along with a complete rewrite of compensation schemes to ensure that executives truly concentrate on the lengthy term (it recommends vesting stock over as lengthy like a decade).

Before we get carried away lower the rabbit hole of methods to repair the problem, it’s worth focusing on how the I.P.O. process — and also the markets themselves — grew to become so damaged.

To listen to Mr. Palihapitiya tell it, the shift — a minimum of in Plastic Valley — started throughout the economic crisis, as he was working at Facebook. His candid explanation is surprising.

“We at Facebook essentially flipped the narrative, so we made it happen purposely,” he stated. “Our whole factor was ‘Let’s stay private longer.’ And also the reason we did which was i was confident it might trick lots of others into not attempting to go public or make use of the capital markets.”

He stated Facebook wished that “all individuals companies would eventually die because they weren’t so good and we’d suck up all their talent.”

Whether or not this would be a trick or otherwise, “stay private longer” grew to become a mantra in Plastic Valley. And given all of the cash sloshing round the technology industry, companies have had the ability to delay going public without breaking the bank.

However it has produced a variety of problems, most famously being that employees have felt their social hire companies — employed by little salary but plenty of stock around the assumption the businesses would go public — has fallen apart. Also it might actually be affecting innovation.

Mr. Palihapitiya stated the lament of numerous employees became this: “I can’t purchase the house on ‘mission and values.’ I really need current compensation. Plastic Valley has become probably the most costly places to reside.Inches A lot of employees, he described, happen to be hopscotching in one company to another looking for an elusive I.P.O.

“Now you’ve these attrition rates of like 20-plus percent,” he stated. “How are you currently designed to build an legendary legacy business whenever your entire worker base walks out of the door every 5 years?Inches

Mr. Palihapitiya’s response is to get rid of the I.P.O. process and it is year . 5 of “distractions attempting to craft a bogus narrative,” because he described it, to lure investors. Rather, through his openly traded vehicle, a unicorn company — shorthand for any $1 billion-plus private technology company — could reverse merge in it, instantly becoming public.

Unlike an dpo, by which employees and early investors have the ability to certain “lockup” dates for whenever they can sell stock, he is able to write the guidelines however the organization wants. Certain employees, for example, could sell early, or even the sales might be staggered there isn’t an “overhang” around the stock that will depress the cost before a significant lockup period expired.

Mr. Palihapitiya also could choose the majority of the company’s big investors, who’ve agreed to their personal lockups, which makes them a lot more oriented toward the lengthy term. For those this, he adopts a tidy fee: 20 % from the $600 million. But when his company acquires a company five to twenty occasions its size via a reverse merger, he stated, the charge is equivalent to or smaller sized than the usual banker’s fee — which is all available, so unlike banks, Mr. Palihapitiya’s interests are aligned using the company’s.

But Mr. Palihapitiya’s approach is only the beginning. Probably the most provocative plan going swimming Plastic Valley is Mr. Ries’s LTSE. “It’s an intellectually thoughtful idea,” Mr. Palihapitiya stated.

The concept, at its core, would be to alter the dynamic between your stock market and whom it serves, Mr. Ries described, suggesting that traditional stock markets focus more about investors — and all sorts of connected buying and selling revenue — than you are on the businesses listed. That, he believes, results in short-term thinking and buying and selling.

Mr. Ries, who authored a magazine entitled “The Lean Startup,” is wishing to produce an exchange that is centered on the requirements of companies having a lengthy-term vision and investors who’re similarly aligned. He believes the issue facing private companies isn’t only the I.P.O. process but additionally “the resided experience with as being a public company.”

Possibly probably the most unusual a part of his exchange’s approach — that is working to obtain approval in the Registration — is when much influence and voting power investors might have over companies.

Presently, a trader the master of one share for any month, or perhaps a day, has got the same voting power as somebody who has owned a share for a long time. Mr. Ries wants what he calls “tourists” — short-term shareholders — to possess less voting power than lengthy-term shareholders, whom he calls “citizens from the republic.” With time, shareholders of companies around the LTSE would gain in votes according to their period of possession.

This type of system will make dual-class structures, like at Snap (or even the New You are able to Occasions) less appealing to its founders. That will also aid finish one other issue which has emerged: Dual-class companies spend the money for leader, typically, three occasions around companies having a single share class.

Mr. Ries also takes are designed for compensation plans. He wants firms that list on his exchange to possess stock vesting programs with a minimum of 5 years and recommends ten years, for executives who leave the organization.

Now, this can be very difficult to apply, and it is difficult to know whether or not this works. “It’s very hard,Inches Mr. Palihapitiya stated. “Ours isn’t as intellectually ambitious.” But many of these attempts are significant tries to fix the machine. Even when it normally won’t act as marketed, hopefully the establishment will require notes.

Mediator: Facebook Knows Much More About Russia’s Election Meddling. Shouldn’t We?

Mediator

By JIM RUTENBERG

Here’s what we should know, to date, about Facebook’s recent disclosure that the shadowy Russian firm with ties towards the Kremlin produced a large number of ads around the social networking platform that ran before, after and during the 2016 presidential election:

The ads “appeared to pay attention to amplifying divisive social and political messages over the ideological spectrum,” including race, immigration and gun legal rights, Facebook stated.

You who purchased the ads were fakes. Mounted on assumed identities, their pages were allegedly produced by digital guerrilla marketers from Russia hawking information designed to disrupt the American electorate and sway a presidential election.

A number of individuals ads were pressed to very specific areas, presumably for optimum political effect. Facebook has identified some 2,000 other ads that might have been of Russian provenance, although, as CNN reported a week ago, it can’t eliminate that there can be way over that.

Here’s what we should have no idea, a minimum of in a roundabout way from Facebook:

• What all individuals ads appeared as if

• What specific information – or disinformation — these were distributing

• Who or exactly what the accounts pretended to become

• The number of Americans interacted using the ads or even the fake personae

We have no idea what geographical locations the alleged social networking saboteurs were targeting (The standard listing of swing states and counties? Or even the most politically flammable fringes?). Facebook states more of individuals ads ran in 2015 compared to 2016, although not the number of more.

Nor has Facebook reported whether those who were targeted were from specific demographic or philosophical groups — which means we actually have no idea the entire extent from the duping on Facebook, and perhaps Facebook doesn’t either.

Facebook states it’s trying to prevent a repeat. Also it was hardly the only real platform that Russia is presumed to possess accustomed to disrupt the political debate in the usa there have been others within the mix too, particularly Twitter, that has divulged even under Facebook has.

But, as a whole, there is a stunning insufficient public specificity a good alleged foreign campaign to help our domestic politics. It had been an attempt that involved “the American firms that basically invented the various tools of social networking and, within this situation, didn’t stop them from being switched into engines of deceptiveness and propaganda,” because the Times’s Scott Geebet noted in the penetrating analysis earlier this year.

Mr. Shane’s report helped complete some blanks as he unearthed some of the phony accounts, like this of 1 Melvin Redick, a professed Pennsylvanian. On his Facebook page, Mr. Redick seems to become a loving father of the adorable young girl, but actually he doesn’t really exist. That account was early to place and promote DCLeaks, the website that grew to become a receptacle for hacked details about prominent Americans.

After which a week ago The Daily Animal uncovered a campaign for any supposed “Citizens before refugees” rally in Twin Falls, Idaho, in August of 2016. Because the independent (and embattled) Russian news organization RBC reported in March, the supposed group behind that rally, SecuredBorders, was the development of the web Research Agency, that is suspected to be behind the Facebook ads under consideration here.

So an image begins to emerge. But it’s a spotty one, only just like the journalism that’s working hard to fill the canvas, and also the scraps we’re getting from police force and also the social platforms themselves.

Facebook is cooperating to different levels with efforts in Washington to experience how it may have been utilized by Russian influence agents. Because The Wall Street Journal first reported late a week ago, Facebook handed evidence associated with the advertising campaign to the special prosecutor investigating the Russia allegations, Robert S. Mueller III.

After I requested Facebook why it couldn’t become more forthcoming using the public, the organization responded having a statement saying, “Due to federal law, and also the ongoing analysis in to these issues, we’re limited in regards to what we are able to disclose openly.”

Facebook is talking about its obligations underneath the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the government law that prohibits the federal government from unduly stalking our electronic communications.

Facebook, which didn’t elaborate, seems to become saying it’s legally restricted in the willy-nilly handing-over of knowledge about its users towards the government or, for instance, the general public. And it is certainly challenging for Facebook to determine in which the lines are between discussing vital information regarding its use within a plot like election meddling, and exposing personal information about its legitimate users.

On Friday, I requested Marc Rotenberg, obama from the Electronic Privacy Information Center, or Epic, an advocacy group, where he was around the question.

“The best situation for that’s the First Amendment protects anonymous speech,” he stated. “And when the U . s . States government were to try and know the identities of questionable loudspeakers, we’d be on the leading lines saying the federal government does not have the authority to do this.Inches

However in this situation, “We’re speaking about non-U.S. persons participating in political speech in U.S. elections, and it is a stretch to increase that sort of protection to this kind of activity,” he stated.

Ryan Calo, legislation professor in the College of Washington, explained the electronic communications privacy law didn’t extend protections to advertisements or published messages which were readily available to the general public.

That’s not saying that Mr. Mueller’s participation doesn’t increase the sensitivity for Facebook. It will. But at some point Facebook owes it towards the public to supply still more detail concerning the ads. Also it owes it to the users to inform them should they have directly interacted with the same as digital spies delivered to influence them.

Then there’s democracy itself, and also the new problems the social platforms are coming up with for this.

The American electoral system features a complicated campaign finance regime which was devised to help keep Americans accustomed to who finances the press messages made to sway them.

The machine is imperfect. And it is been badly weakened through the years. However it still requires, for example, that television stations keep careful logs from the ad time they offer to candidates and political groups around elections, making them open to the general public. It’s also illegal for foreign interests to invest profit our campaigns.

The Russian effort could elude individuals laws and regulations through social networking, in which the system has clearly — and essentially — damaged lower.

“We now realize that foreign interests can run campaign ads — sham issue ads — within this country without anybody getting any understanding of who had been behind it, which essentially violates a fundamental idea of campaign finance laws and regulations,” stated Fred Wertheimer, a longtime advocate for greater regulating political spending through his group Democracy21.

Facebook’s announcement concerning the Russian ads motivated calls from Senators Mark Warner of Virginia and Martin Heinrich of Boise State Broncos for any new law requiring that social networking ads get the same regulatory scrutiny as television ads (“I’m Vladimir Putin and that i approve this message!”).

As of this moment, we have no idea the entire extent that the Russian ads violated the present legal needs. That’s something Mr. Mueller will be able to determine. But Facebook along with other platforms want to get more details available openly, too, therefore the necessary discussion about potential remedies does not have to wait for a Mueller analysis to summarize. Hopefully they’ll.

That much ought to be obvious: Arguments that sites like Facebook are just open “platforms” — and never “media companies” which make editorial judgments about activity within the digital worlds they produced — fall woefully flat with regards to meddling within our democracy.

The platforms have grown to be incredibly effective inside a almost no time. With great power originates great profit, that they are just too pleased to embrace the truly amazing responsibility part, not necessarily a lot.

“Given the function they performed within this election, they are in possession of a significant responsibility to assist solve this issue,Inches Mr. Wertheimer stated.

In the end, the 2018 midterms are coming.

U.S. workers happen to be giving much more money towards the ACLU

Benevity, which states it will help about 250 of Fortune 1000 companies manage their worker giving and company matching gift programs, tracks which non profit organizations get the most donations from workers as well as their employers every year. The information, compiled inside a ranking from the top ten charitable causes, shows a large leap for certain non profit organizations: The ACLU went from sixth devote 2016 to the peak place the very first time (it had been 87th in 2015), and also the Southern Poverty Law Center saw its ranking jump from 17th in 2016 to ninth now (it had been 230th in 2015).

Bryan de Lottinville, Benevity’s founder and leader, stated the shift reflects more event-driven donations tied to political news in the last year — but additionally a general change in how corporations have been thinking about philanthropy. More and more, more companies have concentrated on making their donations correspond with employees’ interests as a means of driving worker engagement — as opposed to just pushing fundraiser that focuses on favored corporate causes.

“Information mill more and more centered on being somebody, instead of being Europe,” stated de Lottinville, as employees and customers demand they speak out or become involved on social issues like global warming, immigration and variety. “We do not get a sense it’s anti-Trump, by itself. It’s much more about promoting diversity and inclusion.”

In Benevity’s list, the Red Mix was second when it comes to donations this season, and also the Planned Being a parent Action Fund arrived third, much like its second-place showing in 2016 but up from ninth in 2015. While Benevity’s data doesn’t reflect the whole workplace giving market, de Lottinville stated it’ll facilitate the distribution of some $1 billion to greater than 100,000 non profit organizations, which makes it a “significant index.”

Yesteryear year also demonstrated some non profit organizations seeing major year-over-year boosts in donations within the direct aftermath of politically billed occasions. For example, Benevity’s data demonstrated that donations on its platform towards the ACLU by Feb ballooned 330 occasions over the year before — following a announcement from the Trump administration’s travel ban. Donations towards the Southern Poverty Law Center, in another example, leaped 35 occasions within the same period this past year following the white-colored supremacist rally in Charlottesville recently.

A few of the development in organizations’ workplace giving most likely also originated from some temporary, double-size matching programs some employers promoted within the wake of occasions such as the travel ban announcement and also the Charlottesville rally. Companies for example Apple and Expedia promised to make two-for-one matches to employees’ contributions to civil legal rights or refugee relief organizations for time following individuals occasions.

“Which was a brand new factor for all of us,Inch stated the ACLU’s director of mid- and major gifts, Liz FitzGerald. “We certainly saw a substantial uptick previously year of both worker giving and company matching gifts.” 

De Lottinville stated individuals types of temporary promotions — in comparison to the classical ongoing corporate charitable matches — tend to be more usual for disaster relief campaigns that companies go to get individuals to donate within the wake of a major hurricane or other catastrophe.

“In eight years, up to Trump’s election, I can not remember many, or no, non-disaster-related super-matching campaign,” he stated. “That’s new for that workplace giving context.”

Read also:

‘I don’t believe they fear this president’: CEOs blast Trump on ‘dreamers’ decision

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Facebook Navigates an Internet Fractured by Governmental Controls

On a muggy, late spring evening, Tuan Pham awoke to the police storming his house in Hanoi, Vietnam.

They marched him to a police station and made their demand: Hand over your Facebook password. Mr. Tuan, a computer engineer, had recently written a poem on the social network called “Mother’s Lullaby,” which criticized how the communist country was run.

One line read, “One century has passed, we are still poor and hungry, do you ask why?”

Mr. Tuan’s arrest came just weeks after Facebook offered a major olive branch to Vietnam’s government. Facebook’s head of global policy management, Monika Bickert, met with a top Vietnamese official in April and pledged to remove information from the social network that violated the country’s laws.

While Facebook said its policies in Vietnam have not changed, and it has a consistent process for governments to report illegal content, the Vietnamese government was specific. The social network, they have said, had agreed to help create a new communications channel with the government to prioritize Hanoi’s requests and remove what the regime considered inaccurate posts about senior leaders.

Populous, developing countries like Vietnam are where the company is looking to add its next billion customers — and to bolster its ad business. Facebook’s promise to Vietnam helped the social media giant placate a government that had called on local companies not to advertise on foreign sites like Facebook, and it remains a major marketing channel for businesses there.

The diplomatic game that unfolded in Vietnam has become increasingly common for Facebook. The internet is Balkanizing, and the world’s largest tech companies have had to dispatch envoys to, in effect, contain the damage such divisions pose to their ambitions.

The internet has long had a reputation of being an anything-goes place that only a few nations have tried to tame — China in particular. But in recent years, events as varied as the Arab Spring, elections in France and confusion in Indonesia over the religion of the country’s president have awakened governments to how they have lost some control over online speech, commerce and politics on their home turf.

Even in the United States, tech giants are facing heightened scrutiny from the government. Facebook recently cooperated with investigators for Robert S. Mueller III, the special counsel investigating Russian interference in the American presidential election. In recent weeks, politicians on the left and the right have also spoken out about the excess power of America’s largest tech companies.

As nations try to grab back power online, a clash is brewing between governments and companies. Some of the biggest companies in the world — Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Alibaba among them — are finding they need to play by an entirely new set of rules on the once-anarchic internet.

And it’s not just one new set of rules. According to a review by The New York Times, more than 50 countries have passed laws over the last five years to gain greater control over how their people use the web.

“Ultimately, it’s a grand power struggle,” said David Reed, an early pioneer of the internet and a former professor at the M.I.T. Media Lab. “Governments started waking up as soon as a significant part of their powers of communication of any sort started being invaded by companies.”

Facebook encapsulates the reasons for the internet’s fragmentation — and increasingly, its consequences.

Graphic | Global Reach

The company has become so far-reaching that more than two billion people — about a quarter of the world’s population — now use Facebook each month. Internet users (excluding China) spend one in five minutes online within the Facebook universe, according to comScore, a research firm. And Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, wants that dominance to grow.

But politicians have struck back. China, which blocked Facebook in 2009, has resisted Mr. Zuckerberg’s efforts to get the social network back into the country. In Europe, officials have repudiated Facebook’s attempts to gather data from its messaging apps and third-party websites.

The Silicon Valley giant’s tussle with the fracturing internet is poised to escalate. Facebook has now reached almost everyone who already has some form of internet access, excluding China. Capturing those last users — including in Asian nations like Vietnam and African countries like Kenya — may involve more government roadblocks.

“We understand that and accept that our ideals are not everyone’s,” said Elliot Schrage, Facebook’s vice president of communications and public policy. “But when you look at the data and truly listen to the people around the world who rely on our service, it’s clear that we do a much better job of bringing people together than polarizing them.”

Friending China

By mid-2016, a yearslong campaign by Facebook to get into China — the world’s biggest internet market — appeared to be sputtering.

Mr. Zuckerberg had wined and dined Chinese politicians, publicly showed off his newly acquired Chinese-language skills — a moment that set the internet abuzz — and talked with a potential Chinese partner about pushing the social network into the market, according to a person familiar with the talks who declined to be named because the discussions were confidential.

At a White House dinner in 2015, Mr. Zuckerberg had even asked the Chinese president, Xi Jinping, whether Mr. Xi might offer a Chinese name for his soon-to-be-born first child — usually a privilege reserved for older relatives, or sometimes a fortune teller. Mr. Xi declined, according to a person briefed on the matter.

But all those efforts flopped, foiling Facebook’s attempts to crack one of the most isolated pockets of the internet.

China has blocked Facebook and Twitter since mid-2009, after an outbreak of ethnic rioting in the western part of the country. In recent years, similar barriers have gone up for Google services and other apps, like Line and Instagram.

Even if Facebook found a way to enter China now, it would not guarantee financial success. Today, the overwhelming majority of Chinese citizens use local online services like Qihoo 360 and Sina Weibo. No American-made apps rank among China’s 50 most popular services, according to SAMPi, a market research firm.

Chinese tech officials said that although many in the government are open to the idea of Facebook releasing products in China, there is resistance among leaders in the standing committee of the country’s Politburo, its top decision-making body.

In 2016, Facebook took tentative steps toward embracing China’s censorship policies. That summer, Facebook developed a tool that could suppress posts in certain geographic areas, The Times reported last year. The idea was that it would help the company get into China by enabling Facebook or a local partner to censor content according to Beijing’s demands. The tool was not deployed.

In another push last year, Mr. Zuckerberg spent time at a conference in Beijing that is a standard on the China government relations tour. Using his characteristic brand of diplomacy — the Facebook status update — he posted a photo of himself running in Tiananmen Square on a dangerously smoggy day. The photo drew derision on Twitter, and concerns from Chinese about Mr. Zuckerberg’s health.

For all the courtship, things never quite worked out.

“There’s an interest on both sides of the dance, so some kind of product can be introduced,” said Kai-Fu Lee, the former head of Google in China who now runs a venture-capital firm in Beijing. “But what Facebook wants is impossible, and what they can have may not be very meaningful.”

This spring, Facebook tried a different tactic: testing the waters in China without telling anyone. The company authorized the release of a photo-sharing app there that does not bear its name, and experimented by linking it to a Chinese social network called WeChat.

One factor driving Mr. Zuckerberg may be the brisk ad business that Facebook does from its Hong Kong offices, where the company helps Chinese companies — and the government’s own propaganda organs — spread their messages. In fact, the scale of the Chinese government’s use of Facebook to communicate abroad offers a notable sign of Beijing’s understanding of Facebook’s power to mold public opinion.

Chinese state media outlets have used ad buys to spread propaganda around key diplomatic events. Its stodgy state-run television station and the party mouthpiece newspaper each have far more Facebook “likes” than popular Western news brands like CNN and Fox News, a likely indication of big ad buys.

To attract more ad spending, Facebook set up one page to show China’s state broadcaster, CCTV, how to promote on the platform, according to a person familiar with the matter. Dedicated to Mr. Xi’s international trips, the page is still regularly updated by CCTV, and has 2.7 million likes. During the 2015 trip when Mr. Xi met Mr. Zuckerberg, CCTV used the channel to spread positive stories. One post was titled “Xi’s UN address wins warm applause.”

Fittingly, Mr. Zuckerberg’s eagerness and China’s reluctance can be tracked on Facebook.

During Mr. Xi’s 2015 trip to America, Mr. Zuckerberg posted about how the visit offered him his first chance to speak a foreign language with a world leader. The post got more than a half million likes, including from Chinese state media (despite the national ban). But on Mr. Xi’s propaganda page, Mr. Zuckerberg got only one mention — in a list of the many tech executives who met the Chinese president.

Europe’s Privacy Pushback

Last summer, emails winged back and forth between members of Facebook’s global policy team. They were finalizing plans, more than two years in the making, for WhatsApp, the messaging app Facebook had bought in 2014, to start sharing data on its one billion users with its new parent company. The company planned to use the data to tailor ads on Facebook’s other services and to stop spam on WhatsApp.

A big issue: how to win over wary regulators around the world.

Despite all that planning, Facebook was hit by a major backlash. A month after the new data-sharing deal started in August 2016, German privacy officials ordered WhatsApp to stop passing data on its 36 million local users to Facebook, claiming people did not have enough say over how it would be used. The British privacy watchdog soon followed.

By late October, all 28 of Europe’s national data-protection authorities jointly called on Facebook to stop the practice. Facebook quietly mothballed its plans in Europe. It has continued to collect people’s information elsewhere, including the United States.

“There’s a growing awareness that people’s data is controlled by large American actors,” said Isabelle Falque-Pierrotin, France’s privacy regulator. “These actors now know that times have changed.”

Facebook’s retreat shows how Europe is effectively employing regulations — including tough privacy rules — to control how parts of the internet are run.

The goal of European regulators, officials said, is to give users greater control over the data from social media posts, online searches and purchases that Facebook and other tech giants rely on to monitor our online habits.

As a tech company whose ad business requires harvesting digital information, Facebook has often underestimated the deep emotions that European officials and citizens have tied into the collection of such details. That dates back to the time of the Cold War, when many Europeans were routinely monitored by secret police.

Now, regulators from Colombia to Japan are often mimicking Europe’s stance on digital privacy. “It’s only natural European regulators would be at the forefront,” said Brad Smith, Microsoft’s president and chief legal officer. “It reflects the importance they’ve attached to the privacy agenda.”

In interviews, Facebook denied it has played fast and loose with users’ online information and said it complies with national rules wherever it operates. It questioned whether Europe’s position has been effective in protecting individuals’ privacy at a time when the region continues to fall behind the United States and China in all things digital.

Still, the company said it respected Europe’s stance on data protection, particularly in Germany, where many citizens have long memories of government surveillance.

“There’s no doubt the German government is a strong voice inside the European community,” said Richard Allen, Facebook’s head of public policy in Europe. “We find their directness pretty helpful.”

Europe has the law on its side when dictating global privacy. Facebook’s non-North American users, roughly 1.8 billion people, are primarily overseen by Ireland’s privacy regulator because the company’s international headquarters is in Dublin, mostly for tax reasons. In 2012, Facebook was forced to alter its global privacy settings — including those in the United States — after Ireland’s data protection watchdog found problems while auditing the company’s operations there.

Three years later, Europe’s highest court also threw out a 15-year-old data-sharing agreement between the region and the United States following a complaint that Facebook had not sufficiently protected Europeans’ data when it was transferred across the Atlantic. The company denies any wrongdoing.

And on Sept. 12, Spain’s privacy agency fined the company 1.2 million euros for not giving people sufficient control over their data when Facebook collected it from third-party websites. Watchdogs in Germany, the Netherlands and elsewhere are conducting similar investigations. Facebook is appealing the Spanish ruling.

“Facebook simply can’t stick to a one-size-fits-all product around the world,” said Max Schrems, an Austrian lawyer who has been a Facebook critic after filing the case that eventually overturned the 15-year-old data deal.

Potentially more worrying for Facebook is how Europe’s view of privacy is being exported. Countries from Brazil to Malaysia, which are crucial to Facebook’s growth, have incorporated many of Europe’s tough privacy rules into their legislation.

“We regard the European directives as best practice,” said Pansy Tlakula, chairwoman of South Africa’s Information Regulator, the country’s data protection agency. South Africa has gone so far as to copy whole sections, almost word-for-word, from Europe’s rule book.

The Play for Kenya

Blocked in China and troubled by regulators in Europe, Facebook is trying to become “the internet” in Africa. Helping get people online, subsidizing access, and trying to launch satellites to beam the internet down to the markets it covets, Facebook has become a dominant force on a continent rapidly getting online.

But that has given it a power that has made some in Africa uncomfortable.

Some countries have blocked access, and outsiders have complained Facebook could squelch rival online business initiatives. Its competition with other internet companies from the United States and China has drawn comparisons to a bygone era of colonialism.

For Kenyans like Phyl Cherop, 33, an entrepreneur in Nairobi, online life is already dominated by the social network. She abandoned her bricks-and-mortar store in a middle-class part of the city in 2015 to sell on Facebook and WhatsApp.

“I gave it up because people just didn’t come anymore,” said Ms. Cherop, who sells items like designer dresses and school textbooks. She added that a stand-alone website would not have the same reach. “I prefer using Facebook because that’s where my customers are. The first thing people want to do when they buy a smartphone is to open a Facebook account.”

As Facebook hunts for more users, the company’s aspirations have shifted to emerging economies where people like Ms. Cherop live. Less than 50 percent of Africa’s population has internet connectivity, and regulation is often rudimentary.

Since Facebook entered Africa about a decade ago, it has become the region’s dominant tech platform. Some 170 million people — more than two thirds of all internet users from South Africa to Senegal — use it, according Facebook’s statistics. That is up 40 percent since 2015.

The company has struck partnerships with local carriers to offer basic internet services — centered on those offered by Facebook — for free. It has built a pared-down version of its social network to run on the cheaper, less powerful phones that are prevalent there.

Facebook is also investing tens of millions of dollars alongside telecom operators to build a 500-mile fiber-optic internet connection in rural Uganda. In total, it is working with about 30 regional governments on digital projects.

“We want to bring connectivity to the world,” said Jay Parikh, a Facebook vice president for engineering who oversees the company’s plans to use drones, satellites and other technology to connect the developing world.

Facebook is racing to gain the advantage in Africa over rivals like Google and Chinese players including Tencent, in a 21st century version of the “Scramble for Africa.” Google has built fiber internet networks in Uganda and Ghana. Tencent has released WeChat, its popular messaging and e-commerce app, in South Africa.

Facebook has already hit some bumps in its African push. Chad blocked access to Facebook and other sites during elections or political protests. Uganda also took legal action in Irish courts to force the social network to name an anonymous blogger who had been critical of the government. Those efforts failed.

In Kenya, one of Africa’s most connected countries, there has been less pushback.

Facebook expanded its efforts in the country of 48 million in 2014. It teamed up with Airtel Africa, a mobile operator, to roll out Facebook’s Free Basics — a no-fee version of the social network, with access to certain news, health, job and other services there and in more than 20 other countries worldwide. In Kenya, the average person has a budget of just 30 cents a day to spend on internet access.

Free Basics now lets Kenyans use Facebook and its Messenger service at no cost, as well as read news from a Kenyan newspaper and view information about public health programs. Joe Mucheru, Kenya’s tech minister, said it at least gives his countrymen a degree of internet access.

Still, Facebook’s plans have not always worked out. Many Kenyans with access to Free Basics rely on it only as a backup when their existing smartphone credit runs out.

“Free Basics? I don’t really use it that often,” said Victor Odinga, 27, an accountant in downtown Nairobi. “No one wants to be seen as someone who can’t afford to get online.”