What goes on when neo-Nazis hijack your brand

The neo-Nazis were hungry. They’d spent your day inside a Charlottesville, Veterans administration., courthouse testifying in the preliminary hearing for any white-colored nationalist jailed for pepper-spraying counterprotesters during August’s deadly Unite the best rally. Now, following the lengthy clarify to Alexandria, Veterans administration., they craved pizza.

“We would order in the local place where we obtain pizza constantly, but we stated no, Papa John’s may be the official pizza from the alt-at this time,Inches stated Eli Mosley, the 26-year-old leader from the white-colored separatist group Identity Evropa. “We’re just supporting the brands that support us.”

That demonstrate of support — un­solicited and undesirable by Papa John’s — exhibits a growing danger to major American brands negotiating the racial politics which have cleaved the nation.

It’s no longer enough for businesses to help keep a minimal profile with regards to polarizing issues involving race, brand experts say. Rather, some information mill preemptively stating their positions, wishing to avert being hijacked by white-colored supremacists wanting to spread their ideas in to the mainstream by tying themselves to household brands that sell products for example pizzas, burgers, athletic shoes and cars. Now, Papa John’s tweeted an explicit rejection of neo-Nazi ideas.

“Companies have to take an open get up on problems that are affecting consumers prior to being co-opted,” stated Heide Gardner, chief diversity and inclusion officer at IPG, certainly one of the world’s largest advertising and marketing conglomerates. “Brands have to develop a certain degree of sophistication around ­racial issues. They should be really conscious of methods billed the atmosphere is and take time to check out situations via a diversity lens.”

Plastic Valley escalates its fight against white-colored supremacy despite freedom of expression concerns]

Papa John’s learned this lesson hard way following the chain, a significant sponsor from the Nfl, found itself within the unwelcome embrace of neo-Nazi groups following its chief executive’s November. 1 call with investors, by which he blamed disappointing pizza sales on football players’ protests against racism and police brutality.

Following the call, a neo-Nazi website hailed Papa John’s as “Sieg Heil Pizza” having a photo of the cake whose pepperonis were arranged right into a swastika.

It didn’t matter that the organization immediately condemned racism and all sorts of hate groups. “We don’t want these people or groups to purchase our pizza,” an announcement from Papa John’s stated.

“They can signal all they need, but we all know,Inches stated Mosley, praising Papa John’s leader John Schnatter’s statements.

Exactly the same undesirable attention originates to Asics, Wendy’s along with other companies. The neo-Nazis’ campaign to co-opt brands has forced firms right into a familiar pattern: corporate statements disavowing white-colored supremacy, typically adopted by silence, hoping the debate will blow over without lengthy-lasting harm to their image and purchasers.

That approach didn’t work with Papa John’s, whose stock fell by 13 percent between your earnings call and also the close of economic Tuesday.

That night, inside a restored make an effort to disown the neo-Nazis who’ve attached themselves towards the brand, Papa John’s tweeted an emoji of the elevated middle finger to “those guys.” The organization also apologized for Schnatter’s “divisive” comments around the earnings call and affirmed its support for that National football league players protesting inequality.

“We works using the players and league to locate a positive solution,Inches the organization tweeted. “Open to ideas all. Except neo-Nazis.”

A spokesman stated the organization thought about being “crystal clear” about where it stands regarding white-colored supremacist groups.

Others must take heed of Papa John’s experience, experts say. Because the marketplace becomes the most recent battleground within the culture wars, brand strategists are counseling companies familiar with remaining from the political fray to proactively weigh along with bold statements about race — as Nike and Ben & Jerry’s did — to thwart attempts by hate groups to consider brands his or her own.

More brands will also be accumulating their crisis management teams when preparing for the following racial flare-up, stated Tiffany R. Warren, senior v . p . and chief diversity officer at Omnicom Group, a worldwide marketing and company communications holding company.

“That’s the brand new reality,” Warren stated. “It’s not only nice to possess. It’s the clear way of conducting business now.”

Some companies were bystanders once they were taken in the racially billed atmosphere.

Tiki Brand, of ­Wisconsin-based Lamplight Farms, was minding its business like a purveyor of Polynesian kitsch when its bamboo torches were utilised by white-colored nationalist protesters in Charlottesville.

Pictures of angry youthful white-colored men parading with the College of Virginia campus holding the flaming torches switched the merchandise once evocative of backyard barbecues and luaus into symbolic of white-colored supremacy.

The organization declined to discuss whether or not this has felt any financial effects.

Others caught the admiration of neo-Nazis after their executives voiced support for President Trump or his policies.

Yuengling, located in Pottsville, Pa., and touted as “America’s earliest brewery,” grew to become the favored beer of white-colored nationalists following the company’s owner backed Trump within the final times of the campaign.

Andrew Anglin, founding father of the Daily Stormer website, declared Asics the “official footwear of white-colored people” after a professional from the Boston shoe company recognized Trump’s stance on trade right after he was elected. Liberals tweeted images of themselves trashing or burning their Asics athletic shoes.

Other firms attracted the interest of white-colored nationalists through branding mistakes that belongs to them. Anglin announced Wendy’s the “official hamburger from the neo-Nazi alt-right movement” following the fast-food restaurant mistakenly tweeted an image of Pepe the Frog, a white-colored nationalist symbol, within the same red pigtails because the Wendy’s girl mascot.

And white-colored supremacists celebrated whenever a casting require a Cadillac commercial searched for “any and all sorts of real alt-right thinkers/­believers.” Cadillac stated at that time it didn’t authorize the casting notice, but Anglin had already pounced, writing inside a publish entitled “Yes, We’re Mainstream Now” that “it was natural for any major American corporation to wish someone from your movement.”

There’s no telling the outcome these endorsements have experienced on companies’ sales or around the movement’s recruitment efforts. But experts expect the co-opting of brands to carry on.

“It makes all the alt-right appear a lot more like normal Americans as opposed to a fringe,” stated Nour Kteily, a professor in the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern College whose studies have centered on neo-Nazi groups.

Matthew Heimbach, the 26-year-old chairman from the Traditionalist Workers Party, a white-colored nationalist group, stated he’ll keep getting Papa John’s sent to his local chapter conferences in Paoli, Ind.

“Condemn us all that’s necessary, but we continuously purchase your pizza to aid your struggle from the politically correct agenda,” Heimbach told The Washington Publish. “We need to prove that we’re a dependable economic, social and political bloc within American politics.”

Endorsing brands for example Papa John’s, he stated, “provides a platform for all of us to spread our message so folks knows what we should are a symbol of, visit our websites and perhaps come along.Inches

In Alexandria a week ago, Mosley and the white-colored nationalist buddies drove to Papa John’s to get two pizzas — pepperoni and meat enthusiasts. For security reasons, they didn’t want pizza sent to the house of Richard Spencer, who, as president from the National Policy Institute, a white-colored nationalist think tank, has gotten dying threats.

They collected in Spencer’s family room and — some the very first time — dug into slices of Papa John’s.

“It makes no difference what it really tastes like,” Mosley stated. “It’s the state pizza from the alt-right.”

They washed it lower with Yuengling beer.

Russian troll factories: researchers damn Twitter’s refusal to talk about data

It’s impossible to precisely estimate the amount of Russian condition-backed accounts operating on Facebook. Researchers think of a number of options, suggesting that Russian interference in British political and cultural existence could originate from between 50 and 150,000 accounts.

The real reason for this isn’t since the Russians are particularly secretive or expert at covering their tracks, however the attitude of Facebook who fight attempts by independent researchers to generate a solution. Consequently, academics and analysts attempting to generate a definitive answer frequently produce extremely divergent estimates.

Q&A

Exactly what is a Twitter bot?

Strictly defined, a Twitter bot is any automated account around the social networking. That may be simple things like instantly tweeting links to news articles – the majority of the Guardian’s social networking accounts are technically Twitter bots, for example – to complex interactions like automatically generating Emoji-based art or automatically replying to global warming deniers with scientific evidence.

But, just like “troll” and “fake news”, the strict definition continues to be forgotten because the term became one of political conflict. The main from the debate may be the accusation that numerous political tweets were sent by “Russian bots”, using the aim of subverting political debate, or just creating chaos generally.

According to what we should learn about Russian information warfare, the Twitter accounts operated by the nation’s “troll army”, located in a nondescript business building in St Petersburg, are unlikely to become automated whatsoever. Rather, accounts like @SouthLoneStar, which pretended to become a Texan right-winger, were most likely operated by individuals compensated 45-65,000 rubles per month to sow discord in Western politics.

In different ways, they was similar to bots – hence the confusion. They rarely tweeted about themselves, sent much more posts than the usual typical user, and were single-minded with what they shared. People behaving like bots pretending to become people: this is actually the nature of contemporary propaganda.

Yin Yin Lu, a investigator at Oxford College, reported 54 Twitter accounts which had tweeted about Brexit and were incorporated on a summary of 2,752 users the social networking had concluded were really operating from the condition-backed “troll factory” in St Petersburg. Another investigator, in the College of Edinburgh, found almost 10 occasions as numerous in the same list: a minimum of 419, based on Prof Laura Cram, director of neuropolitics research.

Researchers at City, College based in london provide a figure two further orders of magnitude greater: in October, they documented a network of 13,493 accounts “that tweeted the Uk Eu membership referendum, simply to disappear from Twitter soon after the ballot”. Individuals researchers declined to guess at who may be pulling the strings from the vast botnet, but did state that they didn’t accept is as true “substantively altered” the tenor from the campaign.

However a 4th group of scientific study has created a greater still estimate: 150,000 accounts with links to Russia tweeted about Brexit within the run-to the referendum, based on Swansea University’s Oleksandr Talavera, dealing with researchers from his college and UC Berkeley in the usa. That network of accounts originated from nowhere to publish huge figures of tweets within the run-to the election – almost 40,000 messages on a single day alone – then disappearing.

Research Agency “troll army”.

Some researchers, for example Oxford’s Lu and Edinburgh’s Cram, began with this list, and labored backwards to find out what of individuals accounts had tweeted about British politics in addition to American politics. Others, like Talavera at Swansea, rather tried to individually link accounts to Russia only using public data, for example whether users tucked up and used Cyrillic letters (that are encoded differently even when they appear exactly the same) or maybe they set their interface language to Russian.

All individuals efforts were hampered further by Twitter’s unwillingness to utilize researchers. The organization doesn’t allow anybody except a couple of select corporate partners accessibility “firehose” – the raw stream of public tweets in realtime – with no one outdoors the organization can consider the full historic database. This means that researchers needed to scramble to generate novel methods to build their very own datasets from the things they could access.

Talavera collected each and every tweet while using hashtag #Brexit more than a two-month period Lu selected 334 hashtags and 65 usernames, and picked up any tweet mentioning them for six several weeks. That resulted in Lu may go over her database afterwards, searching for accounts she’d observed in 2016 which later demonstrated on Twitter’s listing of Russian trolls.

Twitter could do more, the academics agree. “I could be absolutely happy if Twitter labored with researchers,” stated Talavera. “They’ve already deleted lots of accounts, so that they get the job done. However they should make data readily available for researchers.”

The social networking states it features its own systems working internally to locate and shut lower bot and misinformation accounts, and a few of the researchers’ findings suggest it’s effective. Talavera reported that 90% from the automated accounts he’d present in June 2016 have been deleted at that time since.

But that’s a double-edged sword. When Twitter deletes a free account – or once the account holder deletes it themselves – all the details sheds. “We ask them to within our data, but we have no idea other things about the subject,Inches stated Talavera. This means that if the organization does, eventually, publicise what they are called from the accounts it closed, it might be impossible to comprehensively measure the damage they did – as the trolls themselves just make new accounts and begin the procedure again.

Koch Siblings Stated to Back Time Corporation. Deal Talks With Meredith

Time Corporation. is stated to stay in foretells sell itself towards the Meredith Corporation, inside a deal supported by Charles G. and David H. Koch, the millionaire siblings noted for supporting conservative causes.

Talks between Time Corporation., the writer of your time and individuals, and Meredith, the writer of Family Circle and Homes and Gardens, fizzled this season. The brand new round of negotiations, motivated through the surprise entry from the Kochs, can lead to a fast deal, based on people active in the discussions.

The Kochs have tentatively decided to back Meredith’s offer by having an equity injection in excess of $500 million, the folks with understanding from the talks stated. A spokesman for that brothers’ business, Koch Industries, declined to discuss Wednesday.

Time Corporation. also declined to comment. Meredith didn’t immediately react to a request comment.

The businesses happen to be negotiating in the last a few days, and Meredith is reviewing the most recent Time Corporation. financial information.

Even though it is unclear if the suggested deal will achieve fruition, each side aspire to move rapidly enough so that you can announce a transaction right after Thanksgiving.

The talks are members of the 3rd known attempt by Meredith to buy Time Corporation. In 2013, an offer collapsed once the two publishers couldn’t agree with which magazines Meredith would buy. At that time, Meredith apparently didn’t wish to acquire four of your time Corporation.’s most widely known titles: Time, Fortune, Money and Sports Highlighted.

Captured, Meredith was stated to possess been among parties thinking about buying Time Corporation. Individuals discussions ended when Time Corporation. stated it didn’t recycle for cash itself.

A hurdle that stalled negotiations captured was Meredith’s lack of ability to secure sufficient financing from banks. With the help of the Kochs, using their deep pockets and apparent want to make themselves players around the media landscape, this problem could vanish.

It’s not obvious just how much influence — or no — the Kochs might have on the Meredith-owned Time Corporation. when the deal were to undergo.

The discussions come throughout a challenging here we are at magazine publishers, a few of which are attempting to remake themselves as multimedia entities. Time Corporation. has recently shifted its focus from its print magazines because it seeks to draw in a big digital audience and pursue new possibilities for revenue growth.

The most recent talks between Meredith and Time Corporation. show the Koch brothers’ readiness to provide their media ambitions another shot once they explored acquiring the Tribune Company in 2013.

Founded in 1922 by Henry R. Luce, Time Corporation. what food was in some point one of the most influential and authoritative voices in American magazine publishing, with offices overlooking Rockefeller Center and Radio City Music Hall. Over Time and Existence magazines, it chronicled the good and the bad of the nation through stellar photography and weekly updates on news, sports and culture.

Koch Industries operates oil refineries in a variety of states and it has a hands in several other companies. Based on Forbes, it’s the second-largest independently operated company within the U . s . States, second simply to Cargill, with annual sales revenue in excess of $100 billion.

Charles and David Koch make hefty donations to numerous social and humanities organizations, including Lincoln subsequently Center, the American Museum of Natural Background and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Longtime libertarians, they’re also prominent backers of conservative causes and candidates. In 1979, David Koch ran because the vice-presidential candidate around the 1980 Libertarian ticket (with Erectile dysfunction Clark towards the top of check in).

The siblings have ongoing to help politics via a Koch-funded nonprofit conservative advocacy group founded in 2004, Americans for Success. Within the run-to the 2016 presidential election, the audience spent greater than $720 million to boost conservative policy positions and candidates.

V . P . Mike Pence was the primary speaker in an Americans for Success gathering in August in Richmond, Veterans administration. At that time, The Brand New You are able to Occasions reported the Koch siblings — once skeptical of President Trump — had moved nearer to him, inspired, partly, by his intends to overhaul the tax code.

It never hurts to inquire about a refund, and you will be amazed

Among the financial tips I’ve forwarded to the kids is the notion that “it never hurts to inquire about.Inches

I had been advised of the throughout a recent chat. Every Thursday, within my live discussions, I persuade folks to talk about an affidavit. It’s my method of getting great news during all of the accusing and aggrandizing we have seen in politics. (Using the discharge of the Republicans’ tax plan, prepare for several quarrelling about money.)

Anyway, a readers desired to share something underneath the headline, “It never hurts to inquire about.Inches

“A couple of several weeks ago, I traveled a toll road and recognized which i had unintentionally left my E-ZPass transponder in your own home. Despite the fact that I’d traveled merely a couple of exits, I needed to spend the money for full turnpike toll inside my exit. It had been around $44. The turnpike worker stated this occurs constantly, and that he offered me a form that i can request reimbursement. He stated it had been most likely a lengthy shot to obtain a refund because this was my mistake, but ‘you don’t know.’ I posted the refund form, owning as much as my mistake and stating that I wished they’d have whim on me since i certainly learned my lesson. I acquired reimbursement of $37 within the mail! I understand it’s a percentage, however that made my day, and that i recognized it never hurts to inquire about.Inches

Numerous folks advised the individual that she or he might have used the E-ZPass lane and settled up later after explaining the problem. But the thing is that it is okay to inquire about elegance.

I released a phone call for other tales of “it never hurts to inquire about.Inches

Loved that one: “Over a Thanksgiving visit with family, we required a lot of nieces/nephews (8 to fifteen age groups) to determine the brand new King Kong movie. About twenty minutes in, we recognized it had become far too frightening and violent for that more youthful kids, and made the decision to depart. On impulse, my spouse requested the theater when we might get reimbursement (lengthy shot!). We’ve got one. For the tickets, it had been more than $100.”

Ask and you will receive — for example within this story: “I did by using Verizon when my partner traveled to Canada. We setup an worldwide plan that just cost you a pittance for his calls there, but I discovered he’d made a lot of trip-planning calls prior to the trip, that have been billed in the regular (greater) rate. As I was communicating with the service repetition to setup the program for his trip, I stated. ‘Gee, If only I’d been aware of individuals planning calls. I’d have subscribed to the worldwide plan earlier.’ I honestly wasn’t expecting anything. The repetition adjusted the costs around the place.”

Ask once the unpredicted happens: “One year we compensated our taxes late because our second child came early. I compensated when I possibly could, then authored towards the IRS (and incorporated a photograph of both cute kiddos) explaining what went down. They sent us a 1-time refund of the majority of the penalty and interest! I sent a duplicate of the letter having a similar letter to my condition tax government bodies plus they gave us reimbursement, too! Never hurts to inquire about or include cute photos — maybe use cats should you not have kids.”

Another story about taxes: “My Fairfax County business tax arrives March 1. Twelve months I had been late. I sent the entire payment using the late fee. I authored an email explaining that my mother passed away the Friday before and that i left town in a rush. I wasn’t requesting reimbursement, exactly that I ‘t be reported to some legal action for any overtime. A few several weeks later, I received a cheque refunding the penalty amount having a yellow sticky observe that stated, ‘So sorry for the loss.’ ”

Following this last testimony, I’d prefer to finish having a caution from the readers who got requested a great deal.

“I’ve labored retail and customer support positions for a long time, and individuals expecting compensation for his or her own mistakes is actually difficult to cope with — not only since they’re frequently rude, but oftentimes the worker they coping doesn’t have the opportunity or authority to do this. So, yes, it never hurts to inquire about, but please stress that no business or worker is obligated to do this.Inches

If it is their mistake, certainly ask. But when it’s your fault, don’t demand. Be humble. Out on another grumble if the reply is no.

A hundred years until women will have a similar chances as men, World Economic Forum says 

A failure through the United kingdom to enhance its gender equality has witnessed it get behind other nations in the last decade, based on a study released on Thursday.

Getting once held a position of ninth on the planet in the year 2006, the United kingdom was 15th overall in 2017 when it comes to its gender gap, a ranking produced by ratings in four areas health, education, work and political representation.

The report, printed through the World Economic Forum, demonstrated that global progress in conclusion the gender gap has stalled since 2013. The very first time because it began gathering data with this report in the year 2006, the gulf between men and women chance had widened.

Worldwide, 68pc from the gender gap had closed, a small worsening in findings from 2016 based on the study. This retreat backwards implies that, in the current rate of progress, the worldwide gender gap would take a century to vanish entirely, when compared with 83 this past year.

The study benchmarks 144 countries about how equal their citizens are when it comes to gender. A rustic is scored from zero to 1 the first is complete parity. Instead of score a nation depending on how effective women have been in that nation – for example whether or otherwise they’re outperforming men in almost any given area – it rather examines equality of chance and just how sources are distributed.

When are regions prone to close the economical gender gap

This means that a country where more women than men attend college would score exactly the same level like a country high were equal figures of both genders getting levels.

Saadia Zahidi from the WEF stated that for this reason some less advanced economies had scored highly within the index, since the possibilities provided to women tend to be more equal with individuals of males, “putting in position an atmosphere that can lead to stable and inclusive growth later onInch.

Britain’s 2017 election may be the predominant reason, on the year-on-year basis, it rose within the rankings. In June, voters came back some 200 women MPs, the greatest number ever to go in parliament. That coupled with adding many years to the amount of time the country was governed with a lady, boosted britain’s score: its representation of ladies at work and politics had improved.

However, for equal pay, the United kingdom performed poorly. It was in 53rd position for equal purchase equal work, lower a location from the year before. This doesn’t always mean equality of pay has worsened, however that other nations make progress in a greater pace compared to United kingdom.

This ranking uses research in the Chartered Management Institute showed a 27pc pay gap one of the UK’s 3.3m managers, where men outnumber women three to 1. Separate data from the ONS says once part-some time and full-time personnel are combined, the gender pay gap figure really worsened in 2017, by .2 percentage points.

The United kingdom makes important strides in addressing its political empowerment gender gap, but it markedly lags behind many worldwide peers with regards to work, Ms Zahidi stated. She recommended that far more jobs are necessary for the quest for equal pay, and also the removal of gender bias when companies are hiring staff.

A government spokesperson stated that they are making efforts to enhance women’s possibilities at work by forcing all employers using more than 250 staff to write gender pay and bonus data by April the coming year. The Federal Government also offers set a target for boards contain 33pc women by 2020 and eliminate all-male boards within the FTSE 350.

Facebook, Google and Twitter grilled by Congress over Russian meddling – because it happened

9.40pm GMT21:40

Republicans to propose keeping top tax rate for loaded, trying to make an impression on moderates

House Republican leaders intend to propose preserving the very best earnings-tax rate for loaded people, a final-minute adjustment for their intend to overhaul the tax code they hope will assuage concerns that it’ll mainly help the wealthy, based on four people briefed around the planning Tuesday.

Republicans leaders decided to break down the seven existing tax brackets into three brackets, decreasing the top rate from 39.6 percent to 35 percent, however will support the top bracket for individuals earning greater than a certain threshold, possibly $1,000,000, the folks stated.

The detail was one of many that emerged Tuesday as Republicans leaders scrambled to place the ultimate touches on their own plan, broadly viewed as the final best opportunity for Trump and congressional Republicans to succeed a significant policy achievement this season. Drafters planned to exercise the night time around the bill and unveil it Wednesday, but later made the decision to obstruct it to Thursday, stated House Methods Committee Chairman Kevin Brady (R-Tex.), its lead author.

Following a closed-door meeting of his panel Tuesday night, Brady issued an announcement saying, “In consultation with President Trump and our leadership team, we’ve made the decision to produce the balance text on Thursday.” He stated they “remain on schedule to do this and approve a bill” in a few days.Inches

The delay raises questions regarding whether Republicans have resolved all their variations among concerns that a couple of defections could avoid the bill from passing.

The balance will try to slash corporate tax rates, simplify taxes for people and families and lure the foreign operations of multinational firms to the U . s . States with incentives and penalties.

The choice to maintain a top rate signals that Republicans are wanting to steer clear of the impression their plan, that has already belong to attack as doing little to improve the center class, seeks simply to reward wealthy Americans and corporations. And also the move could attract the support more moderate Republicans.

The Home and Senate intend to focus on separate tracks to pass through legislation by Thanksgiving and send an invoice to President Trump for his signature by year’s finish, though many expect it will require more than that, when the effort succeeds whatsoever.

“It would be the greatest tax event within the good reputation for our country,” Trump guaranteed on Tuesday throughout a ending up in business trade groups in the White-colored House, claims he’s made frequently. Later, inside a tweet, he stated “the Republican House people will work hard (and late) toward the huge Tax Cuts they know you deserve.”

Inside a sign that House Republicans are prepared to go only to date to mollify concerns about inequality, they intend to proceed having a proposal to get rid of the estate tax, though it might be eliminated over several years. Additionally they will propose changes to tax-protected retirement funds plans, for example 401(k)s, in order to raise revenue. But Brady stated Tuesday individuals changes continued to be in flux which 401(k)s might ultimately remain alone.

Overall, House Republicans say their plan will reduce federal tax revenue by $1.5 trillion within the next decade. Maintaining your tax rate for individuals earning over $1 million could lessen the effect on the deficit by about $200 billion more than a decade, based on the Committee for any Responsible Federal Budget.

House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.) stated Tuesday that Brady’s tax plan would lower the organization tax rate from 35 percent to 20 percent, as required by Trump. A brand new wrinkle was emerging late Tuesday, however, with concern growing the corporate tax reduction might be unable to be produced permanent whether it proves too pricey.

Business leaders will fight difficult to prevent Republicans from allowing the speed to return up after many years, however the Republicans might be hamstrung, since it cannot push into law a tax change that contributes an excessive amount of towards the deficit.

Numerous information on the tax proposal came throughout a briefing that House Speaker Paul D. Ryan (R-Wis.) had Tuesday mid-day with conservative activists. Grover Norquist, president of american citizens for Tax Reform, is among the individuals who confirmed the 39.6 percent rate would remain for that greatest earnings.

“Overall, I’m happy using the bill,” stated Adam Brandon, who’s leader of FreedomWorks and attended the Ryan briefing. “My read is the fact that everybody will probably be visiting a tax cut.”

Presently, families spend the money for 39.6 percent rate on earnings above $470,700, therefore the proposal would still lower taxes for those who earn over the lower amount.

The implications from the changes envisioned by Republicans leaders might be far-reaching, but numerous aspects remain uncertain.

A large number of firms that pay their taxes with the individual earnings-tax code would see their rates decreased on the top earnings from 39.6 percent to 25 percent. It’s unclear whether there’d be new provisions to avoid more-wealthy individuals from creating companies to pay for the 25 percent rate on their own earnings as opposed to the greater rate.

The brand new proposal is anticipated to incorporate a brand new “minimum tax” that U.S. companies be needed to pay for on certain foreign earnings in an effort to prevent them motionless U.S. operations to low-tax countries. Companies are watching carefully the way the House bill handles U.S. firms that produce goods overseas and then sell on them into the U . s . States.

The Home Republicans plan would also allow companies to instantly expense capital investments, for example new equipment, for 5 years but reduce the opportunity to subtract charges.

Many companies and also the wealthy are anticipated is the greatest beneficiaries, based on initial versions from the plan, as the effect on many in the centre class is disputed and fewer obvious.

The proposal would roughly double the amount “standard deduction” that lots of Americans can claim that they can exempt some of the earnings from taxation, however it would also get rid of the “personal exemption,” which has a tendency to benefit families with multiple children. However the tax plan’s likely to expand the kid tax credit, something Ivanka Trump has stated can help working families.

The Home Republicans plan allows Americans to subtract the home taxes they pay using their earnings but stop, the very first time, Americans from deducting the condition and native earnings taxes they pay using their federal taxed earnings, a simmering issue that threatens to tear apart the Republicans coalition required to approve the balance.

The program would also abolish the choice minimum tax, a method established to ensure people don’t claim a lot of deductions they pay not enough in taxes, McCarthy stated.

The economical success from the package relies upon questionable economic theories that assume large tax cuts for companies and also the wealthy can result in economic growth and wage gains for everybody else, a conclusion that economists and policymakers have debated for many years.

But Republicans possess a rare lock of political power, manipulating the White-colored House, House and Senate, and therefore are eager to get back political footing lost after numerous missteps this season, specially the failure to rewrite health-care policy.

“The speed that they’re doing this really is much more about politics than about policy,” stated Repetition. Richard E. Neal (Mass.), the ranking Democrat on Brady’s committee. “They don’t want individuals to see what’s inside it, and i believe they require a victory.”

The tax package is anticipated to lessen revenue by greater than $4 trillion over ten years. Republicans aspire to recoup a number of that lost revenue through the elimination of numerous regulations and tax breaks, but they’ve been careful to not identify many of these changes, partly simply because they expect a revolt from interest groups that might be affected.

“They’ve got $4 trillion price of tax promises, plus they essentially at this time have without any revenue to be able to pay it off,Inches Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) stated Tuesday. “So what they’ve done is essentially managed to get obvious their offers to the center class are actually not well worth the paper they’re written on. They’re false offers to the center class.”

White-colored House officials and Republicans congressional leaders have met for several weeks to try and establish the framework for rewriting the tax code, however they agreed only on broad parameters. Big tests now loom for Brady and the Senate counterpart, Finance Committee Chairman Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah), to craft legislation that may pass both chambers.

The federal government collects roughly $4 trillion annually in taxes along with other revenue, a threshold that also fails to deliver of how much cash it spends.

Trump states the alterations can lead to an instantaneous jolt in economic growth, saying that could lead companies to create greater than $4 trillion in past foreign earnings to the U . s . States. Also, he stated it might result in a ton of companies moving to the nation, lured by big tax cuts and also the threat their foreign earnings is going to be susceptible to stricter taxation the very first time.

It’s details for example individuals, though, that’ll be the main focus of countless intense days of negotiations in the home and Senate. Republicans tax authors will also be envisioned having a significantly different method of the taxation of profits overseas.

Resolving these variations is going to be crucial because Republicans have signaled they’ll attempt to push the tax cuts into law with no support from Democrats, testing the slim margin they control within the Senate as well as their balky caucus in the home.

“Given that they’re trying to get this done having a one-party approach, it normally won’t have lots of versatility,” stated Alan Auerbach, director from the Burch Center for Tax Policy and Public Finance in the College of California at Berkeley.

Louise Lengthy led to this report.

Plastic Valley helped Russia sway the united states election. Now what? Emily Bell

Almost annually following the shock election of Jesse Trump, the communication tactics and tools that helped him win power remain probably the most questionable issue in American politics and media. The 2016 “October surprise” was, looking back, less the leak of Hillary Clinton’s boring emails because the realisation that Plastic Valley had accidentally built a very efficient real-time buying and selling system for targeted propaganda.

A little office of Russian trolls could derail 241 many years of US political history with a number of dank memes as well as an advertising budget that will barely buy a billboard in Brooklyn.

On Wednesday, lawyers from Twitter, Google and facebook will mind to Washington Electricity to try and show congressional intelligence committees just how they permitted categories of foreign actors to focus on American voters.

Facebook has accepted to selling $100,000 of advertising, a lot of it in roubles, to suspicious parties, though it thought it was impossible to state just what the ads were or who may have seen them. Twitter continues to be so mortified by the chance that out of control bot military on its platform may have swayed the election that it’s opening a “transparency centre” for future political advertising disclosures. Additionally, it announced a week ago it had been banning two Kremlin-supported media outlets, RT and Sputnik, from buying advertising.

Embarrassingly for Twitter, RT responded by immediately publishing information on conferences between RT and Twitter’s partnership teams prior to the 2016 election where Twitter brainstormed ad strategies using the Russians.

claims that Twitter contacted RT having a comprehensive pre-election advertising plan. To be able to lure RT to accept the exclusive elections offer, Twitter guaranteed a bundle of perks and bonuses.

The sale incorporated things like closed beta testing of recent tools and merchandise, a customised emoji hashtag that will help RT stick out with special election coverage customised analytics and research solutions, along with a dedicated group of Twitter experts to assist with content curation and media strategy.

This sort of services are offered by most platform “partner” teams at social networking companies, whose job it’s to inspire publishers to make use of their technologies and pay money to improve their presence in it. Possibly probably the most ironic facet of Twitter banning RT and Sputnik from buying advertising is the fact that both Russian media outlets have active accounts serving, in RT’s situation, greater than 2.5 million supporters.And, to help highlight the issue with platform governance, they’ve accounts blue “verified” ticks.

As the spotlight has shone brightly around the Russian advertising issue, it appears likely that activities which had no financial component were more influential in moving or subduing voters. A mix of “organic” – delinquent – activity promoted having a light sprinkling of money is exactly what really propels brands, arguments, occasions along with other “content” to the peak of people’s social networking feeds. (Jonathan Albright, an investigation director at Columbia University’s Tow Center, has collected data showing the overall achieve and activity from the Russian propagandists vastly exceeds the achieve from the 3,000 ads Facebook admits to selling.)

In how to choose this issue, politicians and also the media are realising that the way you think and discuss various kinds of messages continues to be well and truly damaged. Social networking makes an exercise – along with a fortune – from erasing traditional limitations between various kinds of material. Where after we had propaganda, press announcements, journalism and advertising, we’ve “content”. Where after we had direct marketing, banner advertising and promotions, we now have “monetisation”. Where we had media proprietors, ad agencies and clients, we now have “partners”. Who might resist partners monetising their content? It may sound so mutually advantageous and efficient. However neo-Nazis having to pay to focus on pensioners with racist propaganda includes a less wholesome ring into it.

A bit of research released a week ago through the US academics Daniel Kreiss and Shannon MacGregor describes the function that social networking companies performed in 2016’s domestic politics, noting with surprise the relationship between technology companies and political campaigns frequently went beyond those of vendor and purchaser. The research describes the way the technology companies wooed campaigns, which partnership teams within companies for example Google, Facebook, Twitter and Microsoft “serve as quasi-digital consultants to campaigns, shaping digital strategy, content, and execution”. This can seem eerily familiar to media companies and news organisations which have a likewise symbiotic relationship using their technological frenemies. This closeness is possibly as big concern for that lengthy-term health of democracy because the accidental access tech companies have provided to malicious actors.

One reaction to the immediate crisis may be the honest ads act, a bipartisan bill that aims to create digital political advertising into line along with other media, demanding full disclosure about funding sources from anybody spending over $500. So far, digital advertising continues to be classified in the same manner as skywriting or marketing messages on pencils, which avoid the requirement of disclosure for logical reasons. In the event that defence was ever highly relevant to digital advertising that is certainly no more relevant now. However , it’s not obvious even that compensated persuasion in online messaging could be considered ‘political advertising. May possibly not even mention an applicant or perhaps a party but simply propagate a particular group of values. It may be, as a few of the Russian activity was, an invite to some public meeting or perhaps a rally.

It’s so hard to know precisely what messages are now being targeted where, and nearly impossible for users to recognize what may well be a targeted ad. Investigative journalists in the American non-profit news organisation ProPublica have built a task to gather and index all political ads circulated through Facebook. Once similar projects examined election flyers, or pamphlets pressed through doorways. Now collecting and analysing the large number of assorted material requires algorithms and browser extensions. The information of targeted ads is recognized as private through the platforms as well as their clients, so unless of course disclosure is voluntary it requires a forensic operation to even consider the content of business messages.

The lack of ability to be aware what an advertisement is if you notice the first is easier for media companies than they wish to admit. The dwindling banner advertising model propping up many publishers is giving method to one of “native advertising”, which merges with editorial. Media companies are now able to operate effectively as advertising agencies for businesses, helping them shape and write “stories” that throw an innocuous light on the given subject or present the advertiser or their sector inside a sanitised and uncritical way. Most publishers would reject the concept that their partnerships with companies and advertisers were area of the same issue because the democratic threat from overseas authoritarians. However the techniques and tools of political messaging and manipulation are exactly like individuals utilized by commercial publishers to produce new kinds of advertising revenue.

The Russian campaign advertising scandal has electrified American media, most famously simply because they benefit from the ritual humiliation of the invincible Plastic Valley overlords. However, if the cause of the issue is tackled, it might have unwelcome repercussions on their behalf far nearer to home.

Mark Warner: Tech Uniform Who Grew to become Tech’s Critic in Congress

WASHINGTON — Senator Mark Warner was thrilled. Relaxing in his basement office in the Capitol a week ago, he leaned forward in the chair, waved his hands in mid-air and pounded his fingers around the table.

He was speaking about how exactly a few of the greatest American technology companies, like Facebook, Google and Twitter, were utilised to spread foreign propaganda throughout the 2016 presidential campaign. And that he desired to make obvious that individuals companies had made major mistakes pre and post the election.

Not just were Russian-linked accounts able to benefit from the help, Mr. Warner stated. The tech companies also required several weeks to give details about individuals accounts. And that he continues to be not convinced, he stated, the companies are revealing everything they are fully aware about how exactly their goods were manipulated.

“They’ve grown so rapidly,” stated Mr. Warner, 62, a Democrat from Virginia. “I’m unsure they’ve fully recognized the implications of their ability.Inches

Now, Mr. Warner, the very best Democrat around the Senate Intelligence Committee, will push for brand new solutions. Executives from Facebook, Google and Twitter are going to testify at congressional proceedings on Tuesday and Wednesday concerning the election and the strength of their platforms.

Lawmakers are more and more going for a critical tone with Plastic Valley, with Mr. Warner one of the harshest. He’s already pressed an invoice requiring the businesses to reveal who compensated for digital political ads, the greatest legislative effort to date to manage the businesses.

Mr. Warner’s position is really a sharp reversal. Before entering politics, he built a lot of money that previously was believed around $200 million like a technology and telecommunications investor and executive. His political identity, first as governor of Virginia after which like a senator, continues to be covered with offers to bring twenty-first century jobs. He’s an extensive and shut network of tech executives and investors.

Mr. Warner is representational from the shifting politics for technology.

“Mark didn’t come up to now using the social networking companies gently,” stated Saxby Chambliss, a upon the market Republican senator from Georgia who regularly meets Mr. Warner and also the Intelligence Committee chairman, Senator Richard Burr of New York, a Republican, to go over the Russia analysis.

The reluctance from the technology companies to consider seriously the analysis into Russian election meddling pressed Mr. Warner within the edge, Mr. Chambliss stated.

“That is really a poor attitude for American companies,” Mr. Chambliss added. “Mark will make certain this problem is highlighted because it must stop.”

In front of the proceedings, Facebook have scrambled to disarm lawmakers with bulletins of voluntary changes for their advertising companies. Sheryl Sandberg of Facebook, for instance, spent a few days in Washington promising more disclosures. Twitter announced it might disclose who buys political ads on its site, also it blocked two Russia-based media organizations from purchasing advertisements.

“Twitter takes a suitable and welcome step,” Representative Adam Schiff of California, the key Democrat around the House Intelligence Committee, stated a week ago.

The businesses repeat the internal investigations and answering lawmakers’ questions really are a main concern. Within their bulletins on voluntary ad disclosures, Facebook stated their stricter policies for who are able to place political ads and offers to make individuals purchases public are indications of their dedication to correcting their mistakes.

“We expect to answering lawmakers’ questions,” stated Joel Kaplan, v . p . of worldwide public insurance policy for Facebook, inside a statement. “We take this problem seriously and think it’s important Congress will get the entire picture of the items happened, including what we should learn about Russian activity on the platform, and has the capacity to share its assessment using the American public.”

But lawmakers stated the businesses, who’ve been interacting independently for several weeks, have a lengthy approach to take.

A week ago, congressional aides stated the internet giants were pushing back against lawmakers. The businesses contended from the ad disclosure bill and pulled their ft to sign up inside a hearing . Lobbyists for Facebook described how their voluntary efforts on political ad disclosures perform much better than rules.

Twitter hasn’t addressed its issues with automated accounts, referred to as bots, that may rapidly spread propaganda or fake news. Additionally, not every social networking companies have announced that they’ll tighten rules for purchasing political ads, probably the most pressing issues. As well as when they do, lawmakers should still make more disclosure a legitimate requirement, stated Senator Amy Klobuchar, Democrat from Minnesota, who’s a co-sponsor from the disclosure bill with Mr. Warner and Senator John McCain, Republican of Arizona.

“If their policies adhere to our bill, they ought to support our bill and perhaps may use their policy like a standard whenever we pass our bill,” Ms. Klobuchar stated.

A lot of the harshest critique to date is originating from Democrats like Mr. Warner and Ms. Klobuchar, that could limit the fallout for that tech companies. The Republican chairman from the Senate Intelligence Committee, Mr. Burr, continues to be more reserved than Mr. Warner, for instance.

Many Republicans are unwilling to add any rules to companies. Many are also scared of crossing other party people or President Trump, who regularly play lower Russian interference within the election.

Republicans have gradually begun with more scrutiny from the companies. But lawmakers who’re more oriented toward free markets happen to be unwilling to regulate the quickly evolving industry. Some of the best regulators, particularly individuals hired by Mr. Trump, will also be considered unlikely to consider strong action from the industry.

The very best antitrust enforcer in the Justice Department, Makan Delrahim, stated within an interview a week ago that his agency would watch to determine whether how big technology companies hurts competition, however that size alone wasn’t justification for doing things against them.

“There are individuals who think big is simply bad,” Mr. Delrahim stated. He invoked the Robert Jackson, the very best antitrust enforcer for that agency about eighty years ago, who stated he was reluctant to try and split up big companies just with regard to doing this.

That makes it simpler for Mr. Warner to say themself like a leading voice about the strength of the tech companies — as unpredicted as it might be.

Mr. Warner accrued his wealth by having an early purchase of cellular company Nextel, that was offered to Sprint in 2005 for $35 billion. Mr. Warner then grew to become a start-up investor at Columbia Capital, which in fact had a workplace in Alexandria, Veterans administration. He used his fortune to operate for governor of Virginia, speaking around the campaign trail about getting work pressure training and tech-oriented economic development to rural areas of the condition. After serving a phrase, he was elected towards the Senate in 2008.

As well as together with his recent critique of the profession, he regularly taps an extensive network of tech executives and investors for counsel.

Throughout the summer time, Steve Situation, the founding father of America online, remained at Mr. Warner’s retirement home on Martha’s Winery. For a long time, the 2 have met regularly to speak about techology-related policy issues, like how artificial intelligence could alter the way forward for labor.

But in this year’s trip, they discussed the Senate intelligence committee’s Russia analysis and the strength of social networking platforms as well as their role within the election.

“His thinking has changed,Inches Mr. Situation stated. “Even though I know it has some benefit together with his profile, everything being equal, I believe he’s contacted this with a few reluctance because he’d prefer to be centered on issues like the way forward for work.”

And Mr. Warner sees no contradiction in the evolution to being considered a clear, crisp prod of Plastic Valley.

“Look, I’m pro-tech. I’m pro-innovation,” he stated, standing and shuffling sideways just like a basketball player on defense. Around the bookshelf near him would be a textbook, “Science and Engineering,” and a small company self-help book known as “Grow Regardless: Of The Business’s Size, Your Industry or even the Economy … and Regardless of the Government!”

He continued: “What I’m afraid is 2018. Should you take a look at Russian intervention within the American elections, when it comes to sowing chaos, they’d very good R.O.I.,” he stated, pulling from his past existence using the business acronym for roi.

“There is simply too much on the line,” he stated.

Corner Office: How to Be a C.E.O., From a Decade’s Worth of Them

Corner Office

By ADAM BRYANT

It started with a simple idea: What if I sat down with chief executives, and never asked them about their companies?

The notion occurred to me roughly a decade ago, after spending years as a reporter and interviewing C.E.O.s about many of the expected things: their growth plans, the competition, the economic forces driving their industries. But the more time I spent doing this, the more I found myself wanting to ask instead about more expansive themes — not about pivoting, scaling or moving to the cloud, but how they lead their employees, how they hire, and the life advice they give or wish they had received.

That led to 525 Corner Office columns, and weekly reminders that questions like these can lead to unexpected places.

I met an executive who grew up in a dirt-floor home, and another who escaped the drugs and gangs of her dangerous neighborhood. I learned about different approaches to building culture, from doing away with titles to offering twice-a-month housecleaning to all employees as a retention tool.

And I have been endlessly surprised by the creative approaches that chief executives take to interviewing people for jobs, including tossing their car keys to a job candidate to drive them to a lunch spot, or asking them how weird they are, on a scale of 1 to 10.

Granted, not all chief executives are fonts of wisdom. And some of them, as headlines regularly remind us, are deeply challenged people.

That said, there’s no arguing that C.E.O.s have a rare vantage point for spotting patterns about management, leadership and human behavior.

After almost a decade of writing the Corner Office column, this will be my final one — and from all the interviews, and the five million words of transcripts from those conversations, I have learned valuable leadership lessons and heard some great stories. Here are some standouts.

So You Want to Be a C.E.O.?

Interactive Feature | What Feaster Said

People often try to crack the code for the best path to becoming a chief executive. Do finance people have an edge over marketers? How many international postings should you have? A variety of experiences is good, but at what point does breadth suggest a lack of focus?

It’s a natural impulse. In this age of Moneyball and big data, why not look for patterns?

The problem is that the world doesn’t really work that way. There are too many variables, many of them beyond your control, including luck, timing and personal chemistry.

The career trajectories of the C.E.O.s I’ve interviewed are so varied that spotting trends is difficult, and a surprising number of the executives do not fit the stereotype of the straight-A student and class president who seemed destined to run a big company someday. I’ve met C.E.O.s who started out in theater, music and teaching. Others had surprisingly low grades in school.

So what explains it? Are there some qualities — beyond the obvious, like hard work and perseverance — that explain why these people ultimately got the top jobs?

I’ve noticed three recurring themes.

First, they share a habit of mind that is best described as “applied curiosity.” They tend to question everything. They want to know how things work, and wonder how they can be made to work better. They’re curious about people and their back stories.

And rather than wondering if they are on the right career path, they make the most of whatever path they’re on, wringing lessons from all their experiences.

“I can find interest in a lot of different things and try to put that to work in a positive way, connecting the dots and considering how the pieces fit together,” said Gregory Maffei, whose background includes a college degree in religious studies, and is now the chief executive of Liberty Media, the giant company with interests in everything from SiriusXM to Formula One racing.

Second, C.E.O.s seem to love a challenge. Discomfort is their comfort zone.

“Usually, I really like whatever the problem is. I like to get close to the fire,” said Arkadi Kuhlmann, a veteran banking chief. “Some people have a desire for that, I’ve noticed, and some people don’t. I just naturally gravitate to the fire. So I think that’s a characteristic that you have, that’s in your DNA.”

The third theme is how they managed their own careers on their way to the top. They focus on doing their current job well, and that earns them promotions.

That may sound obvious. But many people can seem more concerned about the job they want than the job they’re doing.

That doesn’t mean keeping ambition in check. By all means, have career goals, share them with your bosses, and learn everything you can about how the broader business works. And yes, be savvy about company politics (watch out in particular for the show ponies who try to take credit for everything).

But focus on building a track record of success, and people will keep betting on you. “You shouldn’t be looking just to climb the ladder, but be open to opportunities that let you climb that ladder,” said Kim Lubel, the former chief executive of CST Brands, a big operator of convenience stores.

Ms. Lubel’s career twists embody that mind-set in an unusual way. She told me a remarkable story of applying for a job with the Central Intelligence Agency, and then — thinking she didn’t get the job — going to grad school instead. Only later did Ms. Lubel (whose maiden name was Smith) learn that the C.I.A. did try to hire her, but that they had offered the job to a different Kim Smith.

The Most Important Thing About Leadership, Part I

Interactive Feature | What Lubel Said

Because leadership is so hard, there is a boundless appetite for somebody to come along and say, “Here’s the one thing you need to know.” Such headlines are the clickbait of business websites.

If only it were that simple. But one thing isn’t necessarily more important than another. And people are, well, complicated. Better to understand leadership as a series of paradoxes.

Leaders, for example, need humility to know what they don’t know, but have the confidence to make a decision amid the ambiguity. A bit of chaos can help foster creativity and innovation, but too much can feel like anarchy. You need to be empathetic and care about people, but also be willing to let them go if they’re dragging down the team. You have to create a sense of urgency, but also have the patience to bring everybody on the team along.

“We think about our values in pairs, and there is a tension or a balance between them,” said Jacqueline Novogratz, chief executive of Acumen Fund, a venture philanthropy organization that focuses on the world’s poor. “We talk about listening and leadership; accountability and generosity; humility and audacity. You’ve got to have the humility to see the world as it is — and in our world, working with poor communities, that’s not easy to do — but have the audacity to know why you are trying to make it be different, to imagine the way it could be.”

The Most Important Thing About Leadership, Part II

Go ahead. Twist my arm.

Despite what I just wrote, if you were to force me to rank the most important qualities of effective leadership, I would put trustworthiness at the top.

We all have a gut sense of our bosses, based on our observations and experiences: Do we trust them to do the right thing? Will they be straight with us and not shave corners of truth? Do they own their mistakes; give credit where credit is due; care about their employees as people as opposed to assets? Do they manage down as well as up?

“If you want to lead others, you’ve got to have their trust, and you can’t have their trust without integrity,” said James Hackett, the chief executive of Ford Motor Company, who ran Steelcase when I spoke with him.

A close cousin of trustworthiness is how much you respect the people who work for you. It’s hard to argue with this logic from Jeffrey Katzenberg, the Hollywood executive:

“By definition if there’s leadership, it means there are followers, and you’re only as good as the followers,” he said. “I believe the quality of the followers is in direct correlation to the respect you hold them in. It’s not how much they respect you that is most important. It’s actually how much you respect them. It’s everything.”

Discussions about different aspects of leadership sometimes remind me of Russian nesting dolls, because many of the qualities can feel like subsets of one another. But I keep going back to first principles of how we’re wired as human beings — we can sense at a kind of lizard-brain level whether we trust someone.

“Human beings are incredibly perceptive,” Pedro J. Pizarro, chief executive of Edison International, a public utility holding company. “And they seem to be more perceptive when they look at people above them than when they look down.”

‘Culture Is Almost Like a Religion’

Interactive Feature | What Nahm Said

It’s a predictable rite of passage as many companies evolve. At some point, the leadership team will go through the exercise of defining a set of values to shape the culture of their company. These lists can be all over the place — lengthy or brief, predictable or quirky.

But the exercise raises an obvious question: Are there some best practices? I have noticed some patterns.

Shorter is generally better than longer. In fact, when I ask chief executives about their companies’ values, it’s not unusual for them to struggle to remember them all if there are more than five bullet points. And if the boss can’t remember them, will anyone else?

Granted, others might disagree with me on this point, including Ray Dalio, founder of the massive Bridgewater Associates hedge fund, who has hundreds of principles for working at his firm. But here’s a thought experiment: What if every company that has codified its values conducted a pop quiz with employees to see if they know them all?

Values need reinforcement beyond repetition. Many companies, for example, make their values part of the hiring and firing process, and hand out awards to people who bring the values to life. “The culture is almost like a religion,” said Robert L. Johnson, chairman of the RLJ Companies, an investment firm. “People buy into it and they believe in it. And you can tolerate a little bit of heresy, but not a lot.”

Michel Feaster, the chief of Usermind, a customer-engagement software firm, shared an insight about the importance of specificity in the values exercise.

“The best cultural lists are the behaviors you want to cultivate,” she said. “The problem with values like respect and courage is that everybody interprets them differently. They’re too ambiguous and open to interpretation. Instead of uniting us, they can create friction.”

At the end of the day, does the values exercise even matter? Many chief executives don’t believe in them. And Tae Hea Nahm, managing director of Storm Ventures, a venture capital firm, thinks other signals are more powerful.

“No matter what people say about culture, it’s all tied to who gets promoted, who gets raises and who gets fired,” he said. “You can have your stated culture, but the real culture is defined by compensation, promotions and terminations. Basically, people seeing who succeeds and fails in the company defines culture. The people who succeed become role models for what’s valued in the organization, and that defines culture.”

Men vs. Women (Sigh)

Interactive Feature | What Simmons Said

Are there differences in the way men and women lead? I’ve been asked this question countless times. Early on, I looked hard to spot differences. But any generalizations never held up.

Sure, there are differences in the way people lead. But in my experience interviewing executives for the past decade, they are more likely to be driven by other factors, like whether they are introverts or extroverts, more analytical or creative, and even whether they grew up in a large or small family.

That said, there is no doubt that women face much stronger headwinds than men to get the top jobs. And many of those headwinds remain once they become C.E.O.s.

But the actual work of leadership? It’s the same, regardless of whether a man or a woman is in charge. You have to set a vision, build cultural guardrails, foster a sense of teamwork, and make tough calls. All of that requires balancing the endless paradoxes of leadership, and doing it in a way that inspires trust.

A suggestion: I believe it’s time to give the narrative about whether men and women lead differently a rest. Yes, we need to keep talking and writing about why there are so few women in the top ranks. But this trope about different styles of leadership among men and women seems past its expiration date.

And while we’re at it, could everyone agree to drop the predictable questions about how female chief executives juggle family and work? Or start asking men the same questions, too?

I Have Just One Question for You

Interactive Feature | What Katzenberg Said

A big surprise has been all the different answers I’ve heard to the simple question I’ve posed to each leader: How do you hire? Even in recent weeks, I was still hearing job-interview questions I had never heard before.

Just last month, for instance, Daniel Schwartz, the chief executive of the parent company of Burger King, told me that he likes to ask candidates, “Are you smart or do you work hard?” (Yes, there is a right answer, he said: “You want hard workers. You’d be surprised how many people tell me, ‘I don’t need to work hard, I’m smart.’ Really? Humility is important.”)

Their creativity is no doubt born of necessity. Candidates are so trained to anticipate the usual questions — “What are your biggest strengths and weaknesses?” — that C.E.O.s have to come up with bank-shot questions to get around the polished facades.

This has inspired a kind of running game I’ve played with many chief executives: If you could ask somebody only one question, and you had to decide on the spot whether to hire them based on their answer, what would it be?

I’d nominate a question that surfaced during my interview with Bob Brennan, an executive director at CA Technologies, a software firm, who was the chief of Iron Mountain, the records-management company, when I spoke with him.

“I want to know how willing people are to really talk about themselves,” Mr. Brennan said. “So if I ask you, ‘What are the qualities you like least and most in your parents?’ you might bristle at that, or you might be very curious about it, or you’ll just literally open up to me. And obviously if you bristle at that, it’s too vulnerable an environment for you.”

I’ll let the human resources professionals debate whether such a question is out of bounds.

But I’m hard pressed to think of a better crystal ball for predicting how somebody is likely to behave in the weeks, months and years after you hire them. After all, people often adopt the qualities of their parents that they like, and work hard to do the opposite of what they don’t like.

The point is reinforced time and again in my interviews. When I ask executives how their parents have influenced their leadership style, I often hear powerful themes that carry through their lives and careers.

“I grew up in a big Italian family,” said Sharon Napier, the chief executive of Partners + Napier, an ad agency. “Fighting and being loud at the kitchen table was normal. I didn’t realize when you went to somebody else’s house they didn’t argue about something. So I love what I always call creative tension in the agency.”

She added: “I like having a good debate. At first, people think that’s combative. I really want to hear if you have a different opinion. There has to be enough trust to do that.”

My Favorite Story

Interactive Feature | What Kuhlmann Said

I heard it from Bill Green, who was the chief executive of Accenture, the consulting firm, at the time of our interview. I asked him about his approach to hiring, and near the end of our conversation, he shared this anecdote:

“I was recruiting at Babson College. This was in 1991. The last recruit of the day — I get this résumé. I get the blue sheet attached to it, which is the form I’m supposed to fill out with all this stuff and his résumé attached to the top. His résumé is very light — no clubs, no sports, no nothing. Babson, 3.2. Studied finance. Work experience: Sam’s Diner, references on request.

“It’s the last one of the day, and I’ve seen all these people come through strutting their stuff and they’ve got their portfolios and semester studying abroad. Here comes this guy. He sits. His name is Sam, and I say: ‘Sam, let me just ask you. What else were you doing while you were here?’ He says: Well, Sam’s Diner. That’s our family business, and I leave on Friday after classes, and I go and work till closing. I work all day Saturday till closing, and then I work Sunday until I close, and then I drive back to Babson.’ I wrote, ‘Hire him,’ on the blue sheet. He had character. He faced a set of challenges. He figured out how to do both.”

Mr. Green elaborated on the quality he had just described.

“It’s work ethic,” he said. “You could see the guy had charted a path for himself to make it work with the situation he had. He didn’t ask for any help. He wasn’t victimized by the thing. He just said, ‘That’s my dad’s business, and I work there.’ Confident. Proud.”

Mr. Green added: “You sacrifice and you’re a victim, or you sacrifice because it’s the right thing to do and you have pride in it. Huge difference. Simple thing. Huge difference.”

The story captures a quality I’ve always admired in some people. They own their job, whatever it is.

Best Career and Life Advice

My vote for career advice goes to something I heard from Joseph Plumeri, the vice chairman of First Data, a payments-processing company, and former chief executive of Willis Group Holdings. His biggest career inflection points, he told me, came from chance meetings, giving rise to his advice: “Play in traffic.”

“It means that if you go push yourself out there and you see people and do things and participate and get involved, something happens,” he said. “Both of my great occasions in life happened by accident simply because I showed up.”

Mr. Plumeri learned this lesson firsthand when he was looking for a job while in law school. He was knocking on doors of various firms, including one called Cogan, Berlind, Weill & Levitt. He managed to get an audience with one of the partners, Sandy Weill, who informed the young Mr. Plumeri that this was a brokerage firm, not a law firm.

Despite the awkward moment, something clicked, and Mr. Weill gave him a part-time job. And Mr. Plumeri moved up as the firm evolved into Citigroup, and he spent 32 years there, many of them in top jobs.

“I tell people, just show up, get in the game, go play in traffic,” Mr. Plumeri said. “Something good will come of it, but you’ve got to show up.”

As for life advice, my favorite insight came from Ruth Simmons, president of Prairie View A&M University. Her suggestion to students:

“They should never assume that they can predict what experiences will teach them the most about what they value, or about what their life should be,” she said. “You have to be open and alert at every turn to the possibility that you’re about to learn the most important lesson of your life.”

Thanks to everyone who followed Corner Office over the years. I hope you found useful lessons in the interviews — I sure did. And thanks to all the executives who were so candid with me about the challenges they’ve faced and the mistakes they’ve made along the way.

Perhaps their stories will inspire others to learn how to be better leaders. It’s not easy, but the ripple effects of thoughtful leadership are worth the effort.